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International Activities
General Customs Information

General Customs Information

Customs Law

GENERAL PRINCIPLES


Chapter 1

General Provisions

Article 1. The taxation law provides rules and principles on the import, export and circulation of commodities within the Lao People�s Democratic Republic in view of protecting, encouraging the local production of commodities and services, promoting investments and external cooperation, promoting export, ensuring state budget revenues and contributing to the national economic development.

 

Article 2: Within the customs territory, which covers the total territory integrity of the Lao People�s Democratic Republic, all persons, organizations and economic sectors without differentiation of nationality, shall strictly comply with the Lao customs laws and regulations, including the international customs treaties entered by or acknowledged by the Government of the Lao People�s Democratic Republic.

 

Article 3. Universal duties shall be paid for goods exported out of or imported into the Lao People�s Democratic Republic according to the rules and principles as provided in the Tariff Code adopted by the National Assembly, except in case of goods categorized under the regime of duty suspension or exemption; the provided tax rates may not be increased or reduced in any way.

All types of exported, imported or circulated goods within the country shall be controlled by customs officers, except in cases provided in Articles 57 and 59 of this Law.

 

Article 4. In necessary and urgent cases for the preservation of the interest and in conformity with the periodical national economic conditions, the President of the Republic may issue decrees on duty rates for certain categories of goods or modify ad valorem duties as provided in the Tariff Code into a definite duty rate and determine an area as duty free zone.

 

Article 5. Each issued customs provision and regulation shall be binding thirty days from the day it is published in the official Gazette

Chapter 2

Types of Goods and Country of Origin

Article 6. All type of export or import goods shall be declared according to the code number and type of goods provided in the Tariff Code.

 

Article 7. Regarding certain types of import or export goods, the President of the Republic will issue a decree on special duty rates for countries with which there is reciprocity. The determination of a special duty rates could be based on the goods' country of origin. The country of origin of goods is the country harvesting, exploiting or producing such goods.

Chapter 3

Value of Goods

Prohibited Goods

Article 8. The declared export value is the actual value of goods delivered to the customs border station at the point export exclusive of customs duties.

Article 9. The declared import value is the actual value of delivered goods to the Lao border inclusive of the goods value and other costs, such as: insurance and transport costs at which buyers and sellers have agreed to transact.

Article 10. During customs declarations, declarers shall attach original invoices at the point of departure to the detailed customs declarations on forms to certify the actual value.

Article 11. Prohibited goods are goods prohibited by the State from export or import, or goods categorized in limited quantity, under regulations on quality, packaging or other specific regulations.

 

PART II

DECLARATION OF GOODS

Article 12. Export goods shall be accompanied with a bill of lading, a detailed customs declaration form, and shall be controlled by customs officers.

 

Article 13. Goods imported through land border shall be transported along routes determined by the authorities and declared to the nearest customs office or station. It is forbidden to use other routes, to store goods in a building or to run though the station. Any violation will be considered as voluntary tax evasion.

 

At the arrival to the customs station, importers shall present bills of lading as temporary declarations to customs officers for the registration of warehouse entry and proceed to detailed customs declarations according to Article 16 of this Law.

 

Article 14. Goods transported by air shall be accompanied with airway bills certified by airline officers. At the landing to the point of entry airport, airline officers shall present such airway bills to the airport customs for registration of warehouse entry and detailed customs declarations.

 

Aircrafts flying international routes shall land in airports specified by the authorities, except in emergency.

 

Article 15. All types of import commodities by boat on international rivers shall be accompanied with shipping documents. Such documents shall be certified by the ship�s owner and shall contain all information as required in the forms. Crafts sailing on international rivers, whether transporting shipments or not, shall only stop at ports where customs stations are established. The crafts� owners shall immediately declare the shipment to the customs officers after the crafts� arrival or before its departure.

PART III

DETAILED CUSTOMS DECLARATIONS

AND PAYMENT OF CUSTOMS DUTIES

Chapter 1

Detailed Customs Declaration

 

Article 16. All type of export or import goods shall be declared in detail and according to the Tariff Code even if duty exempted.

 

Article 17. Detailed declarations shall be handed over to the customs station within ten days from the registration of warehouse entry exclusive of public holidays. If such period is exceeded, the goods will fall under specific customs supervision. In case of deteriorated or perishable goods, goods difficult or inadequate for storage, the customs authorities shall sell such commodities through tenders and preserve the proceeds pending payment.

 

Article 18. Both import and export commodities shall be declared in details by their owners or representatives in possession of a power of attorney in writing or by the customs declaration servicing party.

 

Detailed declarations shall mention each packing unit, and several packing units may not be grouped as one.

In case the customs declarer ignores the goods� details to be filled in a detailed declaration form, the customs declarer shall be authorized to inspect the goods beforehand.

 

Article 19. The customs declaration servicing party conducts the business of performing detailed tax declarations on behalf of the goods� owners or transporters.

 

The Ministry of Finance shall issue detailed regulations on customs declaration services.

 

Article 20. Detailed customs declarations shall be made in writing and clearly mention all data necessary for the implementation of the customs regulations and statistics gathering.

 

Detailed customs declarations shall be signed by the declarers.

 

Article 21. Detailed customs declarations which customs officers registered shall not change.

Chapter2

Inspection of Goods,

Computation, Payment of Customs Duties,

and Removal of Goods from the Custom-House

Article 22. As the detailed customs declarations are registered, customs officers shall proceed to the inspection of the goods in totality or in part as seen appropriate.

 

In case of differences on the result of partial inspection of goods, declarers may request customs officers to inspect the goods in totality.

 

Inspection of goods at the custom-house shall take place at the warehouse or in the warehouse compound or in other premises as specified by the customs authorities.

 

Transportation, handing and other necessary costs according to the laws and regulations incurred for the inspection of goods shall belong to the declarers.

 

Article 23. Inspection of goods shall always take place in the presence of the declarers.

 

In case of difference between customs officers and declarers on information provided in detailed customs declarations, such as on the type, code number, country of origin of goods, �customs officers shall forward the matter of difference to the investigation committee appointed by specific regulations for decision.

 

In case of difference regarding prices, and if the investigation committee has determined the commodities prices, but the declarers still refuses to comply, thecustoms authorities may purchase such goods at the declared price with an additional compensation of fifteen percent of the declared value. At the purchase of the goods, the difference will be resolved.

 

Article 24. Customs duties shall be computed at the applicable rate on the day the detailed customs declarations are registered at absolute numbers. Customs duties shall be paid in cash for which receipts shall be given to the customs duty payer.

 

Article 25. After proper inspection, goods may be removed from the warehouse only when customs duties are paid. In necessary cases, the customs authorities may authorize to remove certain types and inspected goods from the warehouse before payment of customs duties, but a guarantee shall be made for the payment of customs duty in due time as specified by the customs officers which shall not exceed seven days.

 

Import goods, for which authorization has been given for removal shall be removed immediately.

 

Article 26. Export goods, at the presentation of proper documentation and inspection by customs officers, shall be immediately exported.

 

Article 27. Detailed customs declarations are subject to review by customs authorities within three years from the day of their registration. If irregularities are observed in the customs declaration to the actual facts as supported by evidence in the possession of customs officers, the declarer shall be liable for the offense as provided in this Law on the charge of voluntarily impacting on customs duties.

PART IV

GUARANTEE, CUSTOMS DUTY SUSPENSION,

TEMPORARY IMPORT AND EXPORT AND SPECIFIC

REGIMES FOR CERTAIN TYPES OF GOODS

Chapter 1

Removal of Guaranteed Goods

Article 28. The transportation of customs controlled goods by land, water and air from one place to another within the customs territory shall be accompanied by guaranteed goods removal permits. The removal of such goods may be guaranteed by a deposit of equal value to the customs duties or may be guaranteed by a reliable financial institution or legal entity or individual. The removal of prohibited goods shall be accompanied by specific permits issued by the authoritative state agencies.

 

Article 29. Importers or transporters shall strictly comply to all wordings contained in the guaranteed goods removal permits. Transporters shall present such removal permits to the customs officers along used routes.

 

Article 30. As goods are delivered to the specified point of destination, transporters shall immediately present removal permits and guaranteed goods to the customs regime. Inspection of goods shall proceed according to the rules and principles applicable at the point of destination. If the customs duty remains payable, the customs office at point of destination shall collect such customs duty in totality and proceed similarly to import goods for local consumption, except if such goods are categorized under other customs regimes.

Article 31. As customs officers certify that the specified conditions have been fully and properly implemented, the agreement contained in the guaranteed goods removal permits shall expire. In case of cash guarantee, such guarantee shall be reimbursed to the owner.

Chapter 2

Transportation though Foreign Territory and Goods in Transit

Article 32. In necessary cases, locally produced goods and import duty paid goods according to the rules and principles may be removed from one place to another within the Lao People�s Democratic Republic through foreign territory. Such goods will be exempted from export duty, and from exit and entry restriction rules.

 

The transportation of such goods shall be accompanied with guaranteed goods circulation permits. If such goods do not belong to the category of goods prohibited from export or exempted from export duty, their transportation may be authorized by normal circulation permits.

 

Article 33. Transported commodities from abroad under the transit regime through the Lao People�s Democratic Republic to a third country shall be accompanied with guaranteed transit goods permits issued by the customs at the point of departure and will be exempted from customs duties according to specific regulation. Owners or transporters of transit goods shall present guaranteed transit goods transport permits to customs officers along used routes and the border customs at the point of export.

 

The guarantee agreement contained in the guaranteed transit goods transport documents shall expire only when certified by border customs officers at the point of export that such goods have exited from the Lao People�s Democratic Republic. Guarantee agreement shall be terminated specifically for the actual quantities and types of goods exported from the Lao territory only.

Chapter 3

Warehouse System

 

Article 34. The warehouse regime is a regime for the storage of locally produced or import goods that are to be exported by business operators or locally consumed, for a definite period of time with customs duty suspension and under the control of the customs authorities pending the implementation of the customs regime.

 

Warehouses included in the warehouse regime includes 4 categories:

-         Real warehouse;

-         Special warehouse;

-         Fictive warehouse;

-         Industrial warehouse;

 

Businessmen shall be authorized to use the warehouse regime according to conditions outlined by Government.

 

The Minister of Finance shall authorize the establishment of a warehouse regime, and outline regulations on warehouse construction sites, their organization, the use, the supervision and the determination of the storage period for each type of goods.

 

Article 35. Real warehouses store general goods pending their removal from the warehouse according to the customs regime and under the supervision of the customs authorities.

 

Article 36. Special warehouses store the following types of goods:

 

-         Live animals;

-         Goods under restriction of entry or under special supervision;

-         Goods hazardous to health, lacking sanitation or hazardous to the environment.

 

In addition to the above mentioned goods, the Minister of Finance will determine separately other types of goods.

 

Article 37. Fictive warehouses are duty free shops under contract for sale of goods to outgoing travelers and according to specific regulations

Article 38. Industrial warehouses store goods imported by enterprises for assembly, improvement, processing or repair and then re-exported within a definite period of time.

 

Article 39. Goods restricted from entry and transit through the Lao People�s Democratic Republic may be stored in any above warehouse but shall be exported within a definite period of time.

 

Customs authorities are entitled to prohibit the storage of certain goods in warehouses if such commodities are seen as detrimental to health, the environment and warehouse operations.

 

Article 40. Customs officers are entitled to control the inventory and goods in warehouses at the time if deemed necessary.

 

In case it is proven by customs officers that stored goods are missing or do not confirm to the initial declaration, the warehouse owner shall be responsible for the payment of duty at the applicable rate on the day the loss is observed and for other liabilities according to the laws and regulations.

 

Article 41. The removal of goods from one warehouse to another, to the custom-house or re-exported, shall be accompanied with a guaranteed goods removal permit.

 

Article 42. In case it is required to remove goods stored in warehouse under duty holiday regime for domestic consumption, the owner of such goods shall pay duties at the applicable rate on the day the detailed duty declaration for consumption is registered.

 

 

Chapter 4

Temporary Importation and Exportation

 

Article 43. Goods classified under the regime of temporary importation include:

 

-         Imported goods for any purpose then re-exported in the original quantity and condition;

-         Imported goods for processing, assembly into finished products, improvement and repair, then re-exported;

-         Goods classified under the temporary import regime will be exempted from duty at their importation and re-exportation according to outlined regulations and principles.

 

Article 44. For the temporary importation of goods, importers shall sign a contract in the temporary import declaration whereas such goods shall be re-exported or entered in the warehouse system or in the duty free zone pending their re-export and shall fully comply to the conditions provide by the law and regulations on temporary importation.

 

Article 45. Customs duty shall be paid for remains from processing, improved or finished products not corresponding to the required conditions for re-export which shall be used or sold within the country.

 

Article 46. The customs authorities shall outline conditions for temporary export of goods for improvement or addition. At the re-import, customs duty shall be paid on the basis of the improvement�s value.

 

Chapter 5

Temporary Import and Export of Personal Belongings

 

Article 47. The people temporarily entering the Lao People�s Democratic Republic with non-prohibited personal belongings shall be exempted from customs duties provided such goods are re-exported within the authorized period of stay in the Lao People�s Democratic Republic as provided in guaranteed declarations. Details will be separately provided.

 

Article 48. The people temporarily exiting from the Lao People�s Democratic Republic may temporarily take their personal belongings without paying customs duties.

 

For temporary export, exporters shall declare such personal belongings in forms provide by the customs authorities.

 

Article 49. Regarding certain prohibited personal belongings, exporters shall be authorized to export before their departure only when approved by the authoritative state agencies and as a third person guarantees that such belongings shall return in their original number and conditions.

 

In case exported belongings are not re-imported, exporters or guarantors shall be liable before the laws.

 

Chapter 6

Specific Regime for Certain Types of Goods

Article 50.The customs radius is the customs officers� control area, which covers up to thirty kilometers from the border into the customs territory. However, in view of ensuring control and the restriction of illicit trafficking, the customs radius may be extended as approved by the Government.

 

Any circulation of goods within the customs radius shall be accompanied with goods circulation permits issued by the customs authorities.

 

Article 51. Within the customs radius, as well within the customs territory, no family shall be allowed to store, retain or possess goods in excess to the family�s need, except if a family is in possession of documents certifying their lawful acquisition.

PART V

RETENTION OF GOODS

UNDER THE CUSTOMS� SPECIFIC MANAGEMENT

 

Chapter 1

Goods Kept Under the Customs� Specific Management

 

Article 52. Goods to be kept under the customs� specific management:

 

-   Goods which have not been declared in details in due time as provided under Article 17 of this Law;

-    Goods remaining in warehouses for other reasons.

 

The above mentioned goods shall be recorded in a specific customs register. Warehouse fees, deterioration and loss shall remain under the responsibility of the commodities� owners.

 

Customs officers are entitled to open containers subject to the customs� specific management in the presence of their owners or of three witnesses who do not belong to the customs authorities. If such goods do not have any sale value, the customs authorities may destroy them according to the regulations.

 

Article 53. As goods are recorded in specific customs registers, their owners are entitled to claim them back within four months, but shall.

 

-   Pay fines as provided in Articles 90 of this Law in the case of goods intended for exportation, entry in the warehouse system or in the duty free zone.

-  Pay duties and fines as provided in Article 90 of this Law for import goods intended for local consumption.

Chapter 2

Confiscation of Goods Placed

Under the Customs� Specific Management

 

Article 54. Goods placed under the customs� specific management which are degraded, rapidly deteriorating, causing storage difficulties or inappropriate for storage may be immediately sold according to Article 17. Fines according to Article 90 of this Law, as well as duties and other expenses shall be deducted from the proceeds for such sale. The remaining sum shall be preserved by the customs authorities for the commodities� owner for a period of four months from the day the goods are entered in the customs� specific register. If such period is exceeded, the sum shall be remitted to the state budget.

 

Article 55. Goods kept under the customs� specific management in excess of four months without any claim from the owners shall be confiscated by the customs authorities as state property and sold according to regulations provided in Article 17 of this Law. Such sold goods shall not include duties. The sale proceeds after deduction of lawful expenses shall be to the state budget.

 

PART VI

IMPORT DUTY EXEMPTION AND DIPLOMATIC PRIVILEGES

 

Article 56. Imported materials or belongings exempted from import duty include:

 

-         Certain types of food for travelers;

-         Certain family implements when changing residence;

-         Certain type of materials obtained from inheritance;

-         Belongings and presents of governmental delegations returning from abroad.

-         Certain types and quantity of personal belongings of Lao students, pupils, civil servants and diplomats imported after termination of studies, training or civil service abroad;

-         Fuel remaining in tanks of motored vehicles;

-         Fuel for international flights by Lao and foreign airplanes on the basis of agreement or mutual compensation;

-         Non-salable samples;

-         Present, assistance materials, loans or debt servicing by the Government.

-         Humanitarian assistance materials;

-         Specific defense and police equipment;

-         Certain types of necessary religious items based on the concerned state agency�s approval.

 

Article 57. Personal belongings of foreign diplomats and staffs of international organization enjoying diplomatic privileges; belongings of embassies and international organizations appointed to the Lao People�s Democratic Republic on the basis of approval from the Lao Ministry of Foreign Affairs; accompanying items of high level foreign delegations invited by the Government shall be duty exempted or suspended on the basis of mutual compensation. In case of firm suspicion, customs officers may inspect such goods in the presence of their owners or authorized representatives, representatives from the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and representatives from the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and representatives of the concerned state.

 

Personal belongings of foreign governmental agencies, international organizations and foreign non-governmental organizations shall comply with the agreements signed between the Lao Government and the concerned organizations.

 

Article 58. Types and quantity of goods to be duty exempted or suspended shall be governed by separate regulations.

 

Article 59. In case of reliable information and if it may be firmly certified that diplomatic pouches contain prohibited items, statements shall be immediately sent back in coordination with representatives of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the relevant embassy staffs.

 

PART VII

DUTY FREE ZONE

 

Article 60. A duty free zone is an area where goods shall be suspended from customs duty and are not subject to regular control from customs authorities.

 

The creation of duty free zones shall be approved by the National Assembly on the Government�s proposal. Regulations on duty free zones shall be outlined by the Government.

 

PART VIII

THE USE OF BOATS FOR THE TRANSPORTATION OF PASSENGERS OF SHIPMENTS ALONG BORDER RIVERS

 

Article 61. Any craft which owner resides in the Lao People's Democratic Republic and conducts the business of transporting passengers or shipments along border rivers shall be properly registered according to the laws and regulations.

 

Such crafts shall stop at ports with customs or where the customs are located, except in case of emergency; before loading or unloading the commodities, the craft owner shall present the ship log and shipping documents to the customs officers for control.

 

Before departing or after accosting the port or in case of and inspection on board, the ship log and shipping documents shall be presented to customs officers for control whether containing shipments or not.

 

In case of sale, transfer, cession of the craft, or in case of change to the features of the craft or cessation of navigation, the craft�s owner shall notify customs officers and relevant agencies where the craft is registered within twenty days from such change.

 

PART IX

PROSECUTION

 

Chapter 1

Ascertainment of Customs Regulations Violation

 

Article 62. As violations to the customs law and regulations are ascertained, customs officers are entitled to seize goods and vehicles, including relevant documents as evidence for prosecution, and other officers and all citizens have the obligation to cooperate with customs officers.

 

In case of flagrant offense, customs officers are entitled to incarcerate the offender, while other officers and all citizens are entitled to seize goods and arrest offenders. Arrests shall comply to the conditions provided in the Law on Criminal Procedures.

 

Seized goods, vehicles and documents, together with the incarcerated individuals, shall be immediately sent to the closest customs office for the establishment of an official statement, if the offender is guilty of a criminal action, the customs authorities shall hand over the offender to the police for prosecution, Customs authorities shall conduct procedures in relation with goods according to the customs law.

 

In case goods are seized on board of a ship, the statement may be made at such place.

 

If seized goods and vehicles may not be immediately handed over to the customs office, they shall be left with the local administrative authorities or local armed forces, but statement shall have been made as evidence.

 

Article 63. Statements shall be immediately established by at least two customs officers.

 

Such statements shall clearly mention the name, surname, grade, position, duty and assignment posts of customs officers and persons ascertaining the offense, including the name, surname, age, nationality, occupation, address of the offenders, the date, time and place the offense has been ascertained and reasons fro arrest. Regarding seized goods and documents, their types, quantity, weight, quality and other necessary details shall be clearly mentioned, as well as the reasons for their seizure. In addition, statements shall mention the offenses and measures to the imposed upon the offender, including the offender�s opinion.

 

Statements shall be established in the presence of and read by the offender. In case the offender may not read, a third person will read the statement to the offender who will then sign or appose his thumb print on the statement together with customs officers.

 

Mention shall be made whether the offender refuses to sign or appose his thumb print. Statements shall be made in 2 copies, one copy to be kept in the files and another copy to be handed over to the offender.

 

In case no offender may be found, the established statement shall be placed before the customs office, post or in public places for twenty four hours at the latest to notify owners to claim their goods within twenty one days from the day the announcement is made. If such period of time is exceeded, the goods will be forfeited.

 

Article 64. Statements of customs procedures shall be effective until proof of the contrary. The court may consider a statement invalid when established inconsistently with the laws and regulations.

 

Customs statements, including transactions shall be exempted from stamps and court fees.

 

Article 65. Commodities and vehicles seized as evidence shall be preserved by customs officers. Responsibility for any damage or loss to such goods shall be taken by the preserving party according to the law.

 

Putrefied and rapidly degradable goods shall be sold by customs officers according too the regulations as provided in Article 17 of this Law.

 

The proceeds from sale shall be preserved by customs officers until the lawsuit is terminated.

 

In case of non-prohibited goods, customs authorities shall authorize the owners to take possession of seized goods and vehicles on a temporary basis pending the procedure�s termination, but a guarantee of the commodities� and vehicles� value shall be deposited or such guarantee may be made by a reliable person.

 

Article 66. In case of fines, confiscation of goods or sale of confiscated goods after the lawsuit, civil servants or citizens having contributed to such activity shall be congratulated by the Government or be given bonuses which will be governed by separate regulations outlined by the Government.

 

Chapter 2

Transaction

Article 67. Customs authorities are entitled to solve customs lawsuits at the offender�s agreement to transact.

 

Article 68. In case the offender agrees to pay duties and fines as provided in the customs statement, customs officers shall established a statement of transaction which will clearly provide the offender�s transaction.

 

Duties and fines shall be immediately payable. In case immediate payment is not feasible, payment shall be made within fifteen days at the latest from the day the statement of transaction is made. After payment, non-prohibited goods and transport vehicles and materials used for concealment shall be returned to their owners.

 

Chapter 3

Procedures

 

Article 69. Customs authorities shall be entitled to induce procedures against offenders in the following cases:

 

  1. No transaction for the payment of duties and fines;
  2. Failure to comply with the statement of transaction;
  3. Unknown identity of seized goods� and vehicles� owners;
  4. Severe offense belonging to general criminal offenses.

 

Article 70. To induce procedures, customs authorities shall present a file to the authoritative people�s prosecutor for the pursuance of procedures. Such file shall be presented in the form of an application, providing a summary of the offense, accusations, violated articles and purpose of the procedure to which the statement and other necessary documents shall be attached.

 

Article 71. During the performance of their duties, any call for assistance from customs officers shall be answered by the various agencies and armed forces.

 

Article 72. The prescription of a customs lawsuit shall comply with the Criminal Law.

 

Article 73. Customs authorities shall be entitled to withdraw their lawsuit before the court�s final decision.

 

Article 74. Any claim against the customs authorities regarding suspicious paid duties and fines and review of customs documents may be made within one year from the goods� seizure or from the registration of the lawsuit the payment of duties and fines.

 

Article 75. The execution of a customs lawsuit�s decision shall be coordinated between the court executor and customs officers.

 

Article 76. Procedures against customs infractions shall not only be liable to customs procedures, but also to other procedures depending on the nature of the case.

 

Article 77. Customs authorities shall refuse to hand over the seized evidence to prosecuted persons, if the decision is not yet definitive, except if such person has placed assets as collateral according to the regulations.

 

Chapter 4

Responsibilities and Joint Responsibility

 

Article 78. Persons possessing illicit goods or vehicles shall be considered as responsible for such goods or vehicles.

 

Article 79. Drivers of land, water or air transport vehicles may have customs and criminal liabilities. However, drivers of transport vehicles may have criminal liabilities only if transgressions to the Customs Law occur from their own acts.

 

Article 80.Customs declarers shall be responsible for irregularities in the declaration of goods to the customs authorities.

 

Article 81. In the performance of customs declaration business, customs declaration servicing party may have disciplinary, civil, servicing or criminal liabilities depending on the nature of such party�s offenses.

 

Article 82. Those having entered agreements with the customs authorities shall comply to such agreements.

 

Article 83. Collusion in customs infractions shall be subject to the conditions pertaining to collusion in criminal offense.

 

Article 84. Customs authorities shall be responsible for customs officers� acts during the performance of assigned duties as provided in Article 10 of the Contract Law.

 

In case of improper seizure of goods, their owners shall be entitled to claim compensations according to the laws and regulations from the day of seizure until restitution.

 

Article 85. Owners of goods shall have civil liabilities on behalf of workers performing activities on their orders regarding customs declarations, duty payments and other fees according to the laws and regulations, including seized goods.

 

Article 86. Guarantors shall be responsible for the payment of customs duties and other fees according to the laws and regulations for which the guaranteed person is liable.

 

Article 87. Penalized persons for collusion in customs offenses shall be responsible according to the state of offense and shall be jointly responsible for the payment of customs duties and other fees according to the laws and regulations and for the seized goods.

 

PART X

SANCTIONS AGAINST CUSTOMS OFFENSES

 

Chapter1

Classification of Customs Offenses

 

Article 88. Customs offenses are classified in two categories: three degrees of minor offenses and two degrees of major offenses.

 

Article 89. Minor offenses at the first degree include:

 

-         Delayed detailed customs declaration;

-         Inaccurate and incomplete declaration without impact on customs duties and on prohibition measures;

-         Concealment, hindrance and refusal to present the necessary documents to customs officers as provided in Article 104 of this Law;

-         Disturbance, hindrance to the performance of customs officers� duties;

-         Other offenses not classified under other categories.

 

Any persons guilty of minor offense at the first degree shall be fined no less than ten thousand kips and no more than one hundred thousand kips.

 

Article 90. Minor offenses at the second degree include:

 

-         Declaration of goods or containers in excess to or less than the actual number;

-         Declaration of goods or containers under the regime of customs duty suspension in excess to or less than the actual number;

-         Goods in excess to or less than the actual quantity, and failure to declare the numbers of goods under the warehouse system;

-         Other infractions not classified under other categories.

 

Any persons guilty of minor offenses at the second degree shall be considered as responsible for customs evasion in view of reducing or avoiding payment of customs duty and shall pay customs duties and other fees in totality according to the laws and regulations, together with fines equaling the evaded duties. At the second offense, the fines shall be equal to two fold the payable customs duties.

 

Seized non-prohibited goods and materials used for concealment and vehicles used in the offense shall be restituted to their owners after payment of customs duties and fines in totality.

 

Article 91. Minor offenses at the third degree includes:

-         Third minor offense at the second degree;

-         Import or export of non-prohibited goods into or out from the Lao People�s Democratic Republic without detailed customs declarations;

-         Inaccurate data declaration influencing customs duties;

-         Voluntary false declaration of the name of the freight forwarder at the point of departure and name of the actual freight receiver at the point of destination;

-         Inaccurate declaration for the purpose of receiving customs duty exemption;

-         Concealment of non-prohibited goods to elsewhere which does not enjoy privilege for the consumption of such goods;

-         Presentation of several units or containers grouped as one unit or container to customs officers;

-         Concealment of goods through the use of vehicles or materials for customs evasion.

 

Persons guilty of customs offenses at the third degree shall pay duties if such duty has not yet been paid and other fees in totality according to the laws and regulations, together with fines equaling two fold the evaded duties. At the second offense, the fine shall be equal to three fold.

 

Seized non-prohibited commodities and materials used for concealment and vehicles used in the offense shall be restituted to their owners after full payment of duties and fines.

 

In case of repeated offenses over two times, the offender shall be subjected to court procedures.

 

Article 92. Major offenses at the first degree includes the export or import, removal, possession of prohibited commodities without proper authorization.

 

Any person committing major offenses at the first degree shall be subject to a lawsuit and fined two folds the goods� value while the illicit goods shall be confiscated in totality, including materials and vehicles used in the offense.

 

Article 93. Major offenses at the second degree includes the smuggled export or import, circulation or possession of prohibited goods jointly by a collective organization.

 

Any person guilty of major offenses at the second degree will be subject to a lawsuit and fined three fold the goods� value, while the illicit goods shall be confiscated in totality, including materials and vehicles used in the offense.

 

Article 94. As customs officers discover illicit goods belonging to general criminal case, such as: weapons, opium, heroin or other narcotics, or if customs officers are offended, hindered, threatened or subjected to physical injuries, the customs authorities shall induce an initial lawsuit, then hand over the court file, the defendant and the evidence to the investigation police and establish a file for presentation to the prosecutor.

 

Chapter 2

Certain Additional Penalties for Customs Offense

 

Article 95. In addition to the main offenses as mentioned in Article 89 to 94 above, goods shall be seized in the following cases:

 

-         Substituted goods or goods to be substituted under the duty suspension regime;

-         Substitution or withdrawal of goods during international transportation;

-         Import or export of goods without passing through the border customs office;

-         Replacement, withdrawal of goods placed under the customs� supervision.

 

Article 96. If the court decides on penalties on the charge of transgression to the customs suspension regime, the offender shall not be authorized to temporarily import or export the goods, nor to send goods across the border, nor to store the goods in the warehouse.

 

Persons allowing offenders to use their names for the purpose of evading the above penalties shall be liable to receive equal penalty.

 

Article 97. If goods which should be confiscated are seized or not, but if there is sufficient evidence, the customs authorities may request the court to decide their confiscation in cash.

 

Article 98. In case of offenses belonging to several categories, either minor or major, additional penalty shall be decided in favor of the Government depending on the nature of the offense.

 

PART XI

ORGANIZATION AND ACTIVITIES OF THE CUSTOMS AUTHORITIES

 

Chapter 1

Organization

 

Article 99. The customs authorities is an organization under the management of the Ministry of Finance with the following organizational structure:

 

-         Department of Customs and divisions;

-         Customs officers in provinces, the municipality and special zones;

-         Border customs;

-         Customs control posts;

-         Mobile customs control units.

 

The organizational chart, work methods, insignias, uniforms and identity cards shall be governed by specific regulations outlined by the Government.

 

Chapter 2

Scope of Activities of the Customs Authorities

 

Article 100. Regular activities of the customs authorities are conducted within the customs radius. In certain necessary cases, as provided in Article 102 of this Law, customs officers may operate outside the customs radius.

 

Chapter 3

Criteria, Rights and Duties of Customs Officers

 

Article 101. All customs officers shall be qualified, have a clean personal history, be honest, organization conscious, disciplined, skilled and capable in customs and laws and be in good health.

 

Article 102. In view of discovering smuggled goods, customs officers shall have the following rights:

 

-         Physical search, search of goods, vehicles, identity cards or travel permits of individuals whether during the daytime or at nighttime within and outside the customs radius in case of suspicion;

-         Order drivers of vehicles to stop for search in case of suspicion;

-         Use appropriate methods and necessary tools provided by the authorities to forcibly stop vehicles in case drivers refuse to comply;

-         Board crafts for search, monitoring and observe handling of goods. Navigators or owners of crafts shall cooperate with customs officers for search on board;

-         Enter the post office, including in the search room to inspect parcels under suspicion in the presence of post officers in accordance with the laws and regulations of the Lao People�s Democratic Republic and international post federation agreement;

-         Search building for smuggled goods in case such goods have been monitored without losing them from sight, and such search as mentioned above shall strictly comply to the Law on criminal procedures;

-         Wear and use weapons, devices and vehicles as provided in specific regulations;

-         Request and receive cooperation and assistance from public organizations, the society and the population, and receive legal protection;

-         Execute other assigned rights and duties.

 

Article 103. In the performance of their duties, customs officers shall be entitled to demand and review documents related to customs at the following places and from the following persons:

 

-         Transport companies and representative companies and at other relevant premises;

-         Customs declaration serving persons and owners of import-export goods.

 

During inspection, customs officers shall have the right to retain necessary documents temporarily for facilitated work.

 

Article 104. In the performance of their duties, customs officers shall:

 

-         Strictly implement instructions, customs regulations and law and other laws;

-         Preserve documents and professional and official confidentiality;

-         Provide recommendations to persons, business persons and staffs of various organizations on the implementation of the Customs Law;

-         Outline measures to restrict and repress smuggling activities;

-         Wear uniforms and insignias; present assignment cards; and have an adequate and correct attitude.

 

In certain necessary cases, customs officers may perform their duties undercover, but shall present their assignment cards to the searched persons.

 

Article 105. During the performance of their duties, customs officers abusing their rights and using their rights and duties for illegitimate personal interest or acting in a manner to hinder or restrict the lawful circulation of goods, shall be subject to disciplinary measures or penalties according to the laws and regulations.

 

PART XII

FINAL PROVISIONS

 

Article 106. This Customs Law replaces the Decree No. 47/CCM, DATED 26/6/1989, of the Council of Ministers on the State Tax Regime alone.

 

Article 107. The Government of the Lao People�s Democratic Republic shall issue detailed provisions on the implementation of this Law.

 

Article 108. This Law is effective ninety days after its promulgation by the President of the Lao People�s Democratic Republic.

General customs informations  

Every import or export consignment must be cleared through Customs, and any duty or tax paid before the goods are released.

We offer the preparation of Customs entry, handling and delivery of the cargo.

We require adequate information of the circumstances of the importation or exportation in order to be able to offer the best advice on clearing goods through Customs.

  • We require sufficient time before import (at least 2 weeks), and at least one week before export.

This is in order to avoid unnecessary cost for detention and rent, simply because import clearance has been delayed through inadequate preparation or lack of information given by the overseas supplier to the importer.

  • We can either arrange the takeover from the overseas factory or you can deliver to our depot

We will need the following to complete the Customs entry phase smoothly.

  • A clear commercial invoice: (translated if in a foreign language – especially where the descriptions are technical; for example FOB, CIF, etc must be clear from the invoice.
  • A packing list or some other recognizable statement of the individual quantities in each case where there is more than one package involved: The simple reason is that the Customs Officer physically checking goods needs then only to check a proportion of the cases he supervises from which, if correct, he may assume the whole to be in good order.
  • Clear instructions to the forwarder: for example where the goods are to be delivered; if the forwarder (that is us) is to arrange an insurance cover; any abnormal or special instructions that is that we have to unload or provide a crane at the client’s expense etc.
  • A declaration of the terms of purchase where the goods are dutiable and the value exceeds £2000.
  • A document of title such as BILL OF LADING

IT IS IMPORTANT TO DEFINE RESPONSIBILITY FOR TRANSPORTATION AND ASSOCIATED CHARGES, BY INDICATING THE POINT AT WHICH RISK AND RESPONSIBILITY FOR THE CHARGES PASS FROM SELLER TO BUYER.

EXAMPLE: INCO TERMS

  • Ex-works (EXW): by which is meant that all costs from factory door are for account of the buyer/consignee (frequently export packaging may be at the cost of the seller i.e. ‘’Ex-works packed’’)
  • Free on Board (FOB) indicating that all costs are for account of the consignee from the moment the goods pass over a theoretical ‘’ship’s rail’’ at port of shipment.
  • Cost, Insurance and Freight (CIF) indicating that transport costs and marine insurances are both to be paid by seller up to the named town or port. It would be ideal practice for that insurance to be ‘’warehouse to warehouse’’, even though freight charges were being paid to port only, example CIF Liverpool but goods intended for Birmingham. Duty unpaid.
  • DDP: Delivery Duty Paid
  • DDU: Delivery Duty Unpaid
  • DEQ: Delivery Ex-Quay
  • DES: Delivery Ex-Ship Duty Unpaid
  • DAF: Delivery @ Frontier Duty Unpaid
  • CIP: Carriage & Insurance Paid, Duty Unpaid
  • CFR: Like CIF, but insurance covered by buyer
  • CPT: Like CIP, but insurance covered by buyer
  • FAS: Free alongside ship: costs to quay only
  • FCA: Free Carrier – costs of delivery covered, cleared for into charge of buyers carrier.

Importers are recommended to have independent arrangements additional to a sender’s insurance cover.

Please be advised certain products, when faulty requires specific packaging or may need to comply to additional regulations, so it is necessary to ensure that the product can be transported safely.

To avoid unnecessary taxes and duties, the goods must be declared @ customs with the appropriate procedure code. To support the declaration, the invoice must mention that the goods are faulty, and each products must be identified with it’s serial number.

If the product is a replacement, it is worth mentioning the serial number of original and stating a new product with a new serial number has replaced it.

Keeping an eye on details, monitoring the process, applying corrective action and building experience will result in a more cost efficient and slick operation.

Please be advised UK Customs regularly X-Rays both imported and exported containers for security reasons. These checks are carried out randomly. If your container is selected for x-ray, we will advise you about this before check is carried out. UK Customs charges for these X-Rays. We will advise you of cost before X-Ray is carried out.

HOW TO START AND OPERATE YOUR OWN PROFITABLE IMPORT/EXPORT BUSINESS AT HOME 

 

What is a good way to build up a successful business from nothing and have fun doing it? The import/export business may be your answer. Not only does it require little financial investment to start, but it offers the prestige of working with clients from all over the world.

You don't need previous experience in the field, but you should have a good head for organizing. Fulfilling a successful import/export business requires constant attention to little details.

Do you know some local manufacturers looking for ways to increase their market for the goods they make? Or are you planning a trip abroad and want to make some contacts for setting up a business?

If you have an ability to sell, and an air of diplomacy, the import/export business might be right for you. All you need is the desire and determination to make it work.

As you progress in the business, many factors become obvious and easy to handle. For example, you'll need to find a person to handle shipments, called a freight forwarder. And you'll need to create solid contacts and strong relationships with reliable suppliers. But after a short time, you can be well on your way to making a sizeable income - with a very low overhead.

Do you like the idea of running your own business? How would you like a tax deductible trip to foreign places a couple of times a year? The advantages of an import/export business are great.

The biggest advantage is the money you'll make. Once you get the business underway, the commission for setting up sales is very profitable. And after you establish and maintain a number of exclusive accounts, you'll find the time you spend is highly rewarded with money.

Take a look into the import/export business. Consider the risks, and consider the advantages. Talk to people in the business. Is it for you?

HOW IT WORKS   

Of all the manufacturers in the United States, only a small percentage distribute goods outside of North America. The goods that do find foreign markets are exports. On the other hand, anything that is manufactured outside the country and brought in for sale, is imported.

Although it seems obvious that all manufacturers would want a worldwide market, it is not easy for a company that is limited in its scope and abilities. That's where you come in.

An import/export agent is a matchmaker. Manufacturers of domestic goods seek foreign distribution; foreign manufacturers want a United States market. You need to find them, make a solid connection, and establish a business relationship with these companies.

The agent's commission is generally about ten percent. Now, think of ten percent of $500,000 or ten percent of a million. Although that may seem like a large order, it wouldn't be, if you're talking about machinery, raw materials, or computers.

The market is unlimited and there are hundreds of manufacturers looking for foreign distribution. Sporting goods, clocks, electronic games, radios, housewares, garments, tools - anything can be readily imported or exported if there is a consumer demand and if you can get the products.

The United States Government encourages exports. Indeed, it is those sales that keep our balance of payments with the vast amounts of goods that are imported. And you'll find government agencies helpful in establishing your business.

THE BASICS   

You can start your import/export business at home with a telephone. You'll need a file system, business cards, and a machine to answer the phone calls. Once you get going, you'll want a cable address or a telex hook-up.

And you'll need a classy letterhead. Until you establish personal contacts, it is your letterhead that represents you. Make it look professional, possibly embossed or two-color, or gold leafed. Have it printed on light-weight paper for airmail correspondence, but don't have airmail envelopes printed. You'll have a lot of domestic correspondence too.

More than office equipment, you need the determination to make it work. It will be slow at first, and you'll need to plan your moves, make contacts and SELL YOURSELF. But once you make a few sales and sign several exclusive contracts worth money, you'll know your dedication was worthwhile.

MAKING CONTACTS   

The most important step in setting up your business is finding the contacts. You may have relatives in a foreign country; you may have frequently visited and established business relationships in a country. Or, you might just have a feeling for what will sell where. A person who keeps well-informed in the business world can pick up and ride the crest of worldwide trends.

Foreign consulates located in the United States have commercial attaches who want to establish outlets in the U.S., and they're a good place to start. Sometimes these consulates can help you find indices of their own import/ export enterprises.

The United States embassies abroad are another place to find contacts for commercial distribution. They can help you find out about a company's solvency and reputation.

Another way to establish contacts is through the Chambers of Commerce of every city you are aiming for.

Start small - don't tackle the world. Where do you want to sell the American goods you might have in mind? Which countries have the merchandise you want to import? Find out about the countries, what they have to offer, and what is generally in demand.

Then prepare a massive mail campaign.

The easiest way to mail hundreds of letters is to use a typing service that has the equipment to produce the same letter with a different address each time. It's worth the money it will cost - you'd go crazy typing so many identical letters.

To every possible contact, write a letter introducing your company, requesting the names and addresses of appropriate firms to contact. Ask to have the notice published in the monthly bulletin or posted in an appropriate place.

From the names you get back, write another letter, again introducing yourself, and asking information about their company. You can use a questionnaire, which fill out and invites a response.

What goods do they want to import? What products are now imported and how are they distributed? Does the company have a certain territory, does it have sales representatives, branches in other cities? What are the basic details of operation - history, assets and liabilities, plans for growth.

Request any information you need, to find out what they will buy and what they have to sell. If the company is a manufacturer, ask for samples or a catalog, the facts and figures of current foreign distribution, and the product demand in their own country.

ANALYZE THE MARKET   

Keep informed. Read everything you can find about world trade. Look at trade publications, international newspapers, news magazines, and financial reports. Who is selling what to whom? Although the market for American-made airplanes is sewn up, there are thousands of medium to small sized manufacturers in every state of the union.

You can get goods to sell, but you have to be sure to study where they are in demand and can get the price to make exportation viable. Your questionnaires will tell you what further and read the journals published by that country - and many are available in English. Do these publications confirm the desire for certain products?

The American market for imported products fluctuates with the value of the dollar in comparison to the value of each other country's currency. And, importation prices reflect that directly. Can American consumers afford to pay the price of certain imported goods? Or will they?

Finding the right market is as important as the actual particulars of making deals and selling goods. What do you think will sell? If you do some careful studies and think about the trends, you'll be able to come up with hundreds of products to import and export.

The import/export business is actually smaller than you might think. There are only a few of these businesses - that's why there's plenty of room for more.

WHERE TO FIND HELP   

Establish a good business relationship with a local bank that handles international business. Your personal banker will follow through on the actual foreign transactions, and will help keep your credit afloat. In fact, that is one of the best factors about an import/ export business. Aside from office supplies and correspondence, or possible business trips, you need no personal cash outlay. All you need is good credit and a good reputation.

Your banker is your credit manager and will give you valuable advice and references when you deal with both American and foreign manufacturers and distributors.

The United States Government agencies are great places to find help. These agencies promote the import/export business, and publish many small booklets and pamphlets. They also distribute continually updated reports on foreign markets, commerce and financing.

Read these sources of information and find out the particulars of exports, global surveys and ocean freight guidelines. Become familiar with the market share reports, current laws and regulations, and government promotional facilities.

MAKING CONNECTIONS   

As you continue your correspondence with foreign companies, build up a good rapport with their representatives. Pin down a few companies - perhaps in the same country or similar territory - to their exact needs. What are the two or three products most in demand?

Consider their methods of distribution. You may be able to work directly with a wholesaler of an overseas importing company. Your commission will be lower, but you won't need to handle as many particulars, and they will take care of distribution.

Or, you may need to supply catalogs and samples, working with a network of small companies, or sales representatives from a larger conglomerate.

The highest fees that you can collect are for raw materials taken from the source and delivered directly to a manufacturer. But you must be certain of a guaranteed quantity and the continued ability to deliver.

If you are importing goods, you'll need to find U.S. distributors that can handle the quantity of goods at a high enough price for you to profit by. A single retail outlet or two is not enough to make your time worthwhile. Look into how buyers work and make contacts in the larger retail chains if you have retail merchandise.

GETTING THE GOODS   

There are hundreds of American manufacturers with limited distribution looking for an overseas market. Exporting their goods is the place to start your business.

You have many selling qualities for convincing the manufacturers to engage you as the sole export agent. You have foreign contacts and know the demand for specific goods. You will handle the sale, the paperwork, the money, all shipping, customs, and foreign distribution.

The manufacturers in return provide quotations, and you put your fees on top of that - you cost them nothing.

The manufacturers have everything to gain - an increase in sales, a broader market, and more profit. And you have everything to gain - establishing your business, an a commission on the cost of the goods. That is the basis of a firm business connection and a mutually profitable arrangement.

Contact local manufacturers first and then move into larger territories. You can make these contacts by phone, in person, or by personal introduction from contacts you may already have. Or, you can advertise in business publications and newspapers.

Before you do get into a legal agreement, be sure to check the reputation of the company. How long has it been in business? Where are the products distributed domestically? What is the solvency and reliability of the company and its goods? When you make your sale, you'll want to be able to deliver.

MAKING AN AGREEMENT   

Once you have agreed to represent the manufacturer as the export agent, you need to have a written and signed contract to bind this agreement. Your attorney should be the one to draw up this contract - later you can just use the same one, substituting names of other manufacturers.

Basically, the contract is between the manufacturer and you as the export representative. You are granted exclusive rights to distribute goods to all countries except those they already distribute in.

The manufacturer will pay you the specific commission quoted to the distributors on top of the price of goods. The company will also provide catalogs and samples for your use in distribution.

You, the export representative, in turn will promise to do everything possible to make contacts and distribute the manufacturer's goods in foreign territories.

The terms of the contract should then be stated: how many years the contract will be signed for, the terms of cancellation by either party voluntarily or because of no sales action over a certain period of time.

THE SALE   

You've made your contacts with foreign distributors who will buy the merchandise. You have a signed contract with an American manufacturer that will deliver the goods. Perhaps one of the distributors now asks for a firm quotation on the price of a certain amount of goods.

You go to the manufacturer and get a price quotation on the quantity of goods. It should be valid for a certain stated period. The manufacturer may agree to deliver the goods to the ship, handling the freight to that point, or you may need to make arrangements from the factory.

You add on the commission you want to the price of the goods. Then you add on all the extra costs of getting the merchandise from the factory to the warehouse of the distributor.

If you've made an agreement with a foreign import/ export company, their representatives may take over the shipping, paying you the price of the goods and

your commission. That's the easiest, but your commission will have to be reasonably lower.

If your sale is to a company that will distribute the goods wholesale or retail from its premises, you have to arrange all the transportation.

TERMS OF SHIPPING   

You will become more familiar with the terms of shipping used in quoting prices and delivering goods as you gain experience. Your responsibilities vary with the terms of the agreements and orders. Check with your freight forwarder to be clear about your responsibilities.

A bill of lading is a receipt for goods shipped. It is signed by the agent of a ship or common carrier and assures the buyer that the goods were unloaded in the same condition as they were accepted. These are the documents you'll need to produce for your banker to release the letter of credit.

FOB means free on board. The seller delivers the goods to a certain destination with no additional charges. The seller insures and takes the responsibility until that point. The buyer takes the responsibility and pays the charges after that. For example, FOB New York means the seller's price quotation includes full responsibility and shipping to New York.

FAS means free alongside. The seller delivers the goods to the ship that will carry the merchandise. The buyer pays to load onto the ship and takes responsibility from there. FAS New York, for example, means that the seller will deliver and store the goods until they are ready for loading onto the ship.

C & F means cost and freight. The seller pays the freight charges. The buyer insures the merchandise and takes full responsibility after the destination.

CIF means cost, insurance and freight. The seller is responsible for the value and condition of the goods, and pays both insurance and freight charges to a certain point. The buyer is responsible from there.

THE FREIGHT FORWARDER   

A freight forwarder is a person who takes care of the important steps of shipping the merchandise. This person quotes shipping rates, provides routing information, and books cargo space.

Freight forwarders prepare documentation, contract shipping insurance, route cargo with the lowest customs charges, and arrange storage. They are valuable to you as an import/export agent, and they are important in handling the steps from factory to final destination.

They can be found by looking in the yellow pages or by personal referrals. Find someone who can do a good job for you. You'll need someone who you can work with, since this may become a long-term business relationship

You'll need the help of a freight forwarder when you make up the total price quotation to the distributor. Not only do you include the manufacturer's price and your commission - usually added together, but you need to include dock and cartage fees, the forwarder's fees, ocean freight costs, marine insurance, duty charges, and any consular invoice fees, packing charges, or other hidden costs.

Be especially careful when you prepare this quotation. It certainly isn't professional to come back to the distributor with a higher quote including fees you forgot. You might go over the price quotation with your freight forwarder to be sure nothing is overlooked.

Usually the quotation is itemized into three main categories of cost of goods, which includes your commission; freight charges from destination to destination; and insurance fees.

Give a date the quotation is valid to, which should be the same as the date given on your quotes. You may also include information about the products, including any new sales literature.

A formal letter that accompanies the price quotation should push for the sale. You can inform the distributor of the shipping date as soon as the order is received and confirmed by a letter of credit. Send the letter and price quotation by registered mail to be certain of its delivery.

THE LETTER OF CREDIT   

A letter of credit eliminates financial risks for you, the manufacturer, and the distributor. When your distributor confirms the order, a letter of credit is drawn from that company's bank to a branch in the United States or to your bank.

This letter of credit confirms that funds are available from the distributor to cover the same costs you quoted. An irrevocable letter of credit assures you the order will not be cancelled at any time. When that letter of credit is likewise confirmed by your bank to deliver the goods, the distributor is assured of delivery. Once the letter of credit is confirmed by the bank, the currency exchange is also confirmed, so you don't have to worry about the fluctuation in currency.

Basically, the bank holds the money until all shipping documents are presented. The letter of credit states the terms and conditions to make it legal and negotiable into money, usually holding for proof of shipment of the goods. Your freight forwarder helps you attain all those documents. When you hand them to the banker, the letter of credit is turned into liquid assets for you to then pay the manufacturer and all other invoices from the transaction.

Never work on promises. Not only do you take a gigantic risk, but you create bad risks for everyone you are involved with. A letter of credit is the only sure way to transfer these payments.

DELIVERING THE GOODS   

There are many combinations of people and methods that you can use to deliver the goods that were ordered. When you produced a price quotation for the goods, you had to go through all the steps the merchandise will follow. Now, before you proceed, check again.

Do you have a confirmed order signed by the authorized representatives of the distributing company? Has your banker approved the letter of credit from the company?

Compare the amount of the letter of credit to the amount quoted for the goods. Be sure they match exactly. Or, if the distributor chose a certain quantity of several offers, check the prices again and confirm the quantity.

Confirm the quotation and sale with the manufacturer, and do the same with the freight forwarder and any marine insurance agents you are working with. Then follow through.

In order to assure the quality of merchandise, some manufacturers prefer to handle freight to the loading docks, which makes it easier for you. If you handle overland shipping, follow through to be sure the merchandise is picked up and arrives safely at its destination.

Be informed of the date the goods are loaded onto the ship. The factory should have them freighted in time to avoid costly dock storage charges.

Since all conditions of the sale must be met to comply with the terms of the letter of credit, you need all the signed documents. Have your freight forwarder or other contacts get authorized bills of lading for the merchandise each step of the way - from destination to destination.

Once you have all the signed documents, present them to your banker. If all the terms are met, the funds will be released. Since your commission is part of the quoted price of the merchandise, you'll usually collect your fees from the manufacturer.

When it is totally complete, you collect your money - and make a sizeable profit for simply making connections. Consider the commissions when you have dozens of orders coming and going.

IMPORTING   

Take a look at the household items and equipment you have in your home. Made in West Germany; made in Japan; made in Korea. You may have clothing from India, shoes from Brazil, a leather wallet from Italy. Your car may be an import; your stereo equipment may be manufactured elsewhere. There are hundreds and hundreds of items manufactured all over the world, now being used by the American consumer.

The market is huge. And there are many American firms looking for foreign-made merchandise to distribute. Some items are less expensive; some are better made; some are imported because they are made in a country now fashionable with the designers.

What can you tap into? Maybe you have contacts in the United States, distributors looking for certain goods. And you've already made contacts in the foreign countries that produce these goods. Follow through and get yourself an exclusive distribution agreement with those manufacturers.

Importing requires the same diligence and follow-up as exporting does. You'll need a signed contract with the manufacturer to be the sole agent distributing to North America - or the world, depending.

You'll also need to obtain firm price quotes from the manufacturer in the quantities your distributor requests. These quotes should be converted into the appropriate dollar figures representing the currency exchange.

Investigate the reputation of the manufacturer and the reliability of the goods. If you import something like electronic components, check into the other distribution market the manufacturer has to assure the quality of merchandise.

Your commission will come through from the foreign manufacturer. Have your bank investigate the solvency of that company and the reputation of living up to agreements. Since it's on foreign territory you'd have more trouble in any legal suits, even in light of the many international laws.

Prepare the price quotation. It is easiest if you request terms of delivery to the port of that country. Your freight forwarder can help you move the merchandise from that port, overseas, and through domestic customs.

Follow through with all the details of shipment. Be sure to include any insurance, dock fees, storage rates, and shipping overland. Overlook nothing so your price quotation to the American distributor is accurate.

Itemize the quotation and give it to the American distributor. Upon receipt of an authorized order, double check prices and follow through on delivery.

The letter of credit will go from the American distributor to the bank of the manufacturer. All terms and agreements regarding prices, freight and insurance will be defined. The manufacturer's representative will confirm receipt of the letter of credit, which will release the goods for shipment.

Have your freight forwarder follow up on the shipment of goods. They may have to be freighted from the factory to the docks. Arrangements for shipping need to be carried out. Customs duties and unloading need to be followed through from the American port. Then, the goods may need to be freighted overland to the final destination.

As soon as the goods have arrived at the proper assigned destination, papers have to be documented and presented to the bank that holds the letter of credit. Then, all carriers and agents need to be paid, and you collect your commission

PROMOTION   

After you have completed a few sales transactions to establish yourself, you'll need to promote your import/ export business to get more clients. The first transactions give you the experience to learn the ropes of the business, and to establish contacts and agents both here and abroad.

Join organizations of commerce and foreign trade associations to develop more contacts and extend your territory. Talk to everybody you contact about importing and exporting, learning from their mistakes and successes.

Advertise in the print media for distributors and for goods. Manufacturers don't know how to make the contacts for foreign distribution. Show them your credentials and pick them up on exclusive contracts. With a little experience, you can market almost anything anywhere.

EXPANDING THE BUSINESS   

The profit of the import/export business is in the quantity of the goods traded. The higher the cost of the merchandise, the higher the profit from your percentage. Since you need to go through all the steps for each transaction, having more sales on a continual basis simply adds to profit.

Send constant mailings to your original list of contacts and follow-up leads. You might develop a sales approach. As you develop more clients, you can convince the bigger companies of your reputation.

Contact as many manufacturers and distributors as you can on both sides of the ocean. And solidify these contacts. You may be able to work out an arrangement with someone to work in a certain country for a commission. Or, you might want to take a business trip there to personally meet with the various companies.

Get in-depth information on the products now selling. Why are certain products successful? Maybe you can get into the same market with a more competitive product. Investigate ways to sell more. Do the products need to be better made? Do they sell better at a reduced price? Know what sells and where to get it.

MAKING IT WORK   

The import/export business is a high profit enterprise. Because of the low overhead, most of the money you make on commission is yours. But building a truly profitable business requires dedication and a good knowledge of the business.

You need numerous contacts who know you, respect you, and can recommend your work. You need to have good agents both here and abroad to help you follow through on the delivery of the goods. You need a good working relationship with your own bank and possibly the others that letters of credit come into as branch transfers from foreign offices.

Don't be hasty for orders. Investigate the manufacturers and distributors to be sure the products and sales methods are reputable. Check out the particulars of shipping and manufacturing from the foreign country. Each culture works in a specific manner. Get to know how to work with those people.

The import/export business is not for everyone. But it is a personal operation that you can run yourself - you don't have to answer to anybody. The rewards of negotiating in a foreign country are excitement, a touch of the exotic, and the great profit potentials. When you make the proper contacts and follow through completely with reputable manufacturers, reliable shipping companies, and responsible distributors, you have it made.

If you are ready to put in the time, sell yourself. Start making inquiries and contacts. Try it on for size. Does it feel good? Then MAKE IT SUCCEED.

If you need specialized LEGAL advice or assistance on this subject, the services of a professional person is recommended

The Growing Role of Dry Ports in World Trade  Peter Hann

clip_image0011A dry port is generally a rail terminal situated in an inland area with rail connections to one or more container seaports. A container freight train service runs between the seaports and the dry port, on a service timetable that is integrated with the schedules of the container ships arriving at the seaport.

Seaports have grown larger as world trade has increased over the decades, and they now lack space to expand and are restricted by congestion on the various routes into the port. While the access to the port from the sea may be highly regulated and efficient, with radar-guided systems for tracking the ships and sophisticated quayside facilities for speedy loading and unloading, the land route out of the seaport can be slow.

The road and rail links are often too congested and inadequate to deal with the traffic from the port. This problem can be eased by a dry port consisting of rail and multi-modal terminals situated inland from the seaport.


In Europe, for example, the port facilities at a seaport are often in a location that is near to the centre of the city, because historically the city grew up around the port. This may mean that road traffic leaving the port has to make a circuit round the city centre along congested motorways or smaller roads. This problem can be at least partly overcome by the development of specialised rail links designed to move

the freight from the quayside to a dry port inland, enabling many of the procedures formerly carried out at the seaport to be completed at the inland dry port.

The infrastructure available at the dry port would be similar to that of a seaport in terms of the logistics and the facilities for importers and exporters. The dry port would be equipped to handle cargo and transfer freight to warehouses or open storage. Also, customs brokerage documentation and customs clearance could be handled at the dry port.

The development of dry ports has become possible owing to the increase in multi-modal transit of goods utilising road, rail and sea. This in turn has become increasingly common due to the spread of containerisation which has facilitated the quick transfer of freight from sea to rail or from rail to road. Dry ports can therefore play an important part in ensuring the efficient transit of goods from a factory in their country of origin to a retail distribution point in the country of destination.

Economies of scale can result from the further transit of freight in bulk by rail from the seaport to the inland dry port, for further distribution by road or rail. The development of dry ports has been assisted by advances in technology and infrastructure in areas such as hinterland development, multi-modal transport and the design of terminals.


dry port can take maritime goods from the sea ports and consolidate them into multi-modal freight flows to travel on for further short or long distance transits. The dry port can also collect the regional and international freight via multi-modal transit routes to go to the seaport for onward transit by ship. Efficient management would involve the consolidation of loads with the same destination, reduction of the road transport element of the journey and optimising the use of rail transport. The service to the customer should include the provision of complete and up to date information on the possibilities for storage in the dry port and onward transit by road, rail or sea.

Dry ports in Europe

A three-year European Union project known as the Dryport Project is looking at the development of dry ports in the North Sea region and the integration of the dry ports with freight handling in the sea ports to which they are connected. The project aims to assess the potential for improvement of inland ports with connections for multi-modal transport.

In addition to Bremen, Zeebrugge and other ports on the European continent, the Dryport Project also includes the Scottish Intermodal Gateway Network (SIGN) and the Haven Gateway ports in the east of England.

SIGN is concerned with freight movement to and from the south east of Scotland. The Dryport Project aims to review the operation of the maritime gateway ports at Grangemouth and Rosyth, looking for ways to improve the gateway interface and to improve the hinterland infrastructure, facilitating the multi-modal transfer of freight from road to rail and sea.

The Haven Gateway Partnership promotes economic opportunities to ensure the prosperity of the region surrounding the estuaries of the rivers Stour and Orwell including the ports of Harwich, Felixstowe and Ipswich and their hinterland in Suffolk and Essex. The focus of the Partnership is on the ports and the transport and logistics industries associated with them, in addition to other more general aims related to environment and housing in the areas. The EU Dryport Project could help to integrate the freight transport within the region, easing congestion in the seaport areas and improving the environment by integrated urban planning within the region.

The development of dry ports could play a part in reducing greenhouse gas emissions within the European Union by encouraging a shift of freight transport away from road transport towards rail and sea routes. Under the auspices of the EU, transport networks can be improved by transnational projects and cooperation between the public and private sectors. The EU’s Motorways of the Sea project aims to improve port communications within the EU and to promote maritime routes that save energy and relieve the load on road transport networks.

Dry ports in Asia

Elsewhere in the world, the nations of the Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) such as Thailand are planning the extensive use of dry ports in preparation for the establishment of the ASEAN economic community in 2015. Thailand has considerable trade with nearby landlocked countries and the establishment of dry ports would improve the logistics of such trade. Another ASEAN nation, Malaysia, has already developed a dry port at Ipoh which serves the ports of Klang and Penang. The transit of containers from Ipoh to and from the two seaports has reduced transit times and contributed to economic growth in central Malaysia.

Seizing the Opportunities presented by Multi-Modal Transport

clip_image001Where door-to-door freight transport is provided, for example from factory gate to retail distribution point, this is likely to require more than one form of transport to complete the route. Multi-modal transport refers to the conveyance of the goods in a standardised unit such as a container using two or more forms of transport.

Multi-modal transport has continued to develop partly because it has been made possible by the increase in containerisation. For example, a full container load (FCL) or less than container load (LCL) may be transported using road, sea or rail. Other methods of multi-modal transport include truck transport by road and sea; transport using pallets by road, sea and air; and “swap body” transport using road, rail and sea. The carriers will issue a bill of lading for carriage of goods on ships which they do not own or operate a situation known as Non Vessel Operating Carrier (NVOC) or Nov Vessel Operating Common Carrier (NVOCC) operations.

Supply chain management

Multi-modal operations allow precise planning of the transit from door to door, allowing a “just in time” strategy for warehouse and distribution arrangements. There is a demand for continual improvements in the distribution network and for speeding up the supply chain, and the large operators have logistics departments giving advice to customers on the most cost-effective ways to package, route and distribute their product. Supply chain management is increasingly geared towards low-cost manufacture in countries where wages and other costs are low allowing cheap manufacture of goods for distribution in nearby target markets. This strategy improves the service for buyers by reducing the timescale of the supply chain.

The pressures to reduce costs and timescales, together with the improvements in technology, have enabled air, rail and sea operators to work more closely together. The development of a common code of liability and processing documents under the guidance of international bodies such as the International Chamber of Commerce has enabled trust and confidence to be built up among the various participants needing to handle documentation relating to a multi-modal supply.

The improved efficiency and asset utilisation that multi-modal operators make possible leads to the ability to offer competitive rates for door-to-door or warehouse to warehouse supplies. High technology communications systems enable coordination of all stages of the transit and the tracking of the cargo throughout its journey.

Governments will continue to invest in infrastructure in the coming years as this type of government spending is seen as effective in furthering economic growth. The development of seaports and airports, and the connection of areas with ports through a hub and spoke transport system, will ensure that door-to-door delivery through multi-modal transport routes becomes increasingly efficient.

Opportunities of multi-modal transport

Importers and exporters can adjust their trading practices to the opportunities presented by multi-modal transport systems. The use of multi-modal transport may make it possible to penetrate new markets that have become more accessible because of developments in the infrastructure in a region. Traders should be continually reviewing and adapting their supply chain network to take advantage of the new opportunities for cost savings presented by alternative routes and modes of transport from factory to distributor.

The regular review of the possibilities of entering new markets resulting from the opportunities of multi-modal transport could be enhanced by examination of new international trade agreements, the establishment of free trade zones or special economic zones in a country or changes in customs tariffs and tax rates. The combination of such factors can give rise to new trading opportunities especially as

the creation of free trade zones in a country is often accompanied by heavy investment in infrastructure in addition to tax and other concessions.

The development of multi-modal transport networks is an opportunity for exporters to constantly survey the market and ensure that they are transporting their goods in the most cost efficient manner, taking into account the fees paid and the time taken for transit. With the level of competition among freight providers, the market should be assessed at regular intervals to ensure that the carrier previously used is still offering the most cost effective service

Continuing Growth of Containerisation Helps World Trade

 

Discussions of the development of world trade often concentrate on the liberalisation of tariffs or simplification of regulations by the conclusion of international agreements. However world trade has also greatly benefited from improvements in transport and communications. One aspect of this has been the increase in the use of various types of standard containers to store and transport goods.

Containerisation is a process whereby goods are distributed in containers of a standard size, enabling much easier loading and unloading. This type of freight can be very easily transported, through a combination of road, rail and sea transport. Containers also facilitate the electronic tracking of cargo.

The rate of growth of containerisation has continued to increase in recent decades due to the continued integration of shipping routes with road and rail transport. The increase in the total container carrying capacity has accompanied an increase in the size of cargo ships and the development of the high-cube container market that answers the needs of low weight, high volume cargoes such as clothes and foodstuffs. Most of the deep sea trades are now containerized.

Mergers among container shipping lines have created global networks that are in a position to provide a high frequency service of high capacity freight transport. Whereas in 1980 the largest twenty shipping lines accounted for 45% of the world’s container transport capacity, by 2007 this share had risen to 82%.

Only four of the world’s twenty largest container ports in December 2009 were in Europe, these being Rotterdam, Hamburg, Antwerp and Bremerhaven. Three of the top twenty container ports were in the US while the rest were in Asia. The four largest container ports in the world in December 2009 were Singapore, Shanghai, Hong Kong and Shenzhen.

The increase in containerisation has been accompanied by the capacity to provide integrated door-to-door freight transport using multi-modal means of transport. The standardised containers can be moved easily from a ship onto a train designed to take the containers, and the containers also lend themselves to being moved onto trucks for transport by road.

Owing to the possibility of using sea, road and rail transport in combination, goods can be transported from factory to retail distribution point using this multi-modal transport. The reduced intermediate handling and reduced risk of pilferage or damage lowers costs. As container transport is capital intensive, labour costs are reduced along the route. There is also less need for expensive packing of products held in a container.

Sea transport by container can use faster ships, with fewer ports of call and quicker transhipments. The maritime operators can reduce the number of ships used, concentrating on ships with larger capacity that are operated more intensively. The increased utilisation makes a container ship more productive than the ships carrying break-bulk cargo.

Large exporters can use a full container load in a standard sized container to transport their goods, while a smaller exporter can send the freight to a container base for consolidation with other similar cargo going to the same destination.

Owing to the reduction in the number of ports of call, a container ship will spend less than 10% of its time in port. The resulting faster transits and the increased frequency of service enable importers to reduce the amount of stock held. This reduces the need for warehouse space, decreases the risk of obsolescence and improves stock control.

The single transit of the container via the inter-modal transport route can be tracked electronically, thereby simplifying the booking and control of the containers during transit. A through rate can be charged for the entire transit.

Although not all types of cargo can be stowed in containers, the amount of cargo that cannot be containerised is falling each year with the introduction of new types of container. One example of this is the growth of the high cube container market, suitable for “balloon” cargoes that are light but bulky and “cube out” (reach the volume limit of the container) before they “weigh out” (reach the weight limit of the container).

The container network expands all the time as ports and their infrastructure are modernised. The development of “dry ports” that have rail terminals linking to container ports extends the reach of containerisation and inter-modal freight. Container trains run between the container port and the dry port enabling the cargo to be cleared by customs at the dry port. The dry port will provide services of warehousing, documentation and clearance, freight arrangements, insurance and cargo consolidation.

A remaining problem for container shipping is that there is too much movement of empty containers, which constantly need repositioning, depending on the trade route and the type of container. The owner of the container can route the empty container to where it is needed as cheaply as possible, but could also resolve the issue by including in the leasing contract a requirement to return the container to a strategic location. In situations where there is a large imbalance in the location of containers they can be shipped in large numbers to where they are required.

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Why Trade Fairs are Important for Export Marketing

Are trade fairs still relevant ? In this age of Internet and electronic commerce - how valid are trade fairs ? Let us examine the issue threadbare

Trade fair is a rather expensive marketing channel. Besides, substantial monetary investment, one needs to sort out considerable logistics challenges. In case you are participating in overseas trade fairs, challenges are manifold such as visa clearance, sorting out language barrier, on-site trade promotion etc.

Even after attending to all these troubles and spending considerable sum of money - you are still not sure what kind of return to expect on investment. Naturally, one would expect popularity of trade fairs to diminish with time.

However, what we see on ground is just opposite - trade fairs are getting increasingly popular all over the world.

In the USA alone, an estimated 9,000 trade shows or fairs attract over 65 million visitors per year. The Canton fair in China is a legend. Ministry of Commerce (China) has been organizing this fair since 1957 and is considered one of the most successful trade event anywhere in the world. Spread over an area of 630,000 square meter, 15,000 exhibitors with their 41,000 stands display over 150,000 varieties of products to visitors from over 203 countries.

Trade fair is quite popular among Indian manufacturers - a fact evident from resounding success of Indian Trade Promotion Organization (ITPO) who organizes more than 50 trade fairs and exhibitions every year.

Why Trade Fairs are So Important ?  

A survey conducted by the Emnid Institute (Germany) during October’ 2004 on behalf of AUMA (Ausstellungs- und Messe-Ausschuss der Deutschen Wirtschaft) asked 500 companies to rate the importance of communication tools in their communication mix using a scale ranging from 1 = very important to 5 = totally unimportant. Following is the result of this survey:

1

Trade Fair / Exhibitions

76%

2

Personal Sales / Field Service

75%

3

Direct mailing

62%

4

Advertising in Trade Magazines

59%

5

Public Relations

43%

6

Events

39%

7

Internet Promotion

39%



Reason for such popularity of Trade Fairs is not far to seek. Ask any marketing guru what he/she considers the most important elements of any marketing drive and the answer will be

1. Ability to reach right target group

2. Ability to pitch right products to right buyers

3. 3. Opportunity to interact with actual buyers one-to-one and get feedback

4. 4. Opportunity for Brand Building and PR exercise

Trade Fair - with all its accompanying difficulties and expensive nature - fulfils all these marketing goals. In specific terms – a well organized trade show delivers following benefits

  • Business lead generation – from buyers, distributors, agents
  • Market Intelligence – get competitor insights, market trends, innovation previews
  • PR Exposure - media, speaking opportunities, in-show awards
  • Opportunity to interact with various service providers, industry associations, logistics partners, marketing channels etc.

Knowing how a trade fair fits into your overall market strategy is key to working out specific benefits your product/company needs and select matching trade shows and display media.

Trade Fair as Communication Tool  

When it comes to effectiveness (range) and efficiency, trade fairs are the communication tool of choice as they allow companies to interact with customers one-to-one and collect live market feedback.

Trade fair is a reflection of physical world - a replica of actual market in an easy to handle form. It brings representatives from the supply and demand sides of an industry together on same platform for a limited period of time. It gives participants comprehensive market information and serves as a platform for business contacts.

At the same time, trade fairs allow companies to use complete range of marketing tools that they have at their disposal. Instruments that promote sales - known as the marketing mix - related to product, price, distribution and communication policy. When a company participates in a trade fair, all of these areas are simultaneously activated and focused on specific target groups.

Should You Participate or Just Attend ?  

This is a very crucial question every business must address. If you are making initial forays in a target market and your main objective is to understand market dynamics, then simple attendance may be the right choice. In any case, it is most sensible to attend a trade fair several times before deciding to participate. There are several trade fairs directory to help you locate right fairs for your products.

However, if you already have some presence in a target market and plan to consolidate this market presence with more customers, agents, distributors, PR media etc. – then participation may yield rich dividend.

For example, if you have several customers in a target country, who are geographically dispersed – participation in a trade show may be a cost effective option as you are not only demonstrating commitment to the market, raising your profile and enjoying other benefits of exhibiting, but you are also potentially saving time and money from having to fly all over the country to meet your customers in their home territory.

Conclusion  

Trade fair is a formidable marketing option for any business - provided it is used most judiciously and after much deliberation. Careful planning and execution is essential for ensuring a healthy return from this sizable investment. No business can afford to rule out this marketing option, nor can it afford to adopt in haste.

Happy and Productive Surfing

Dr. Amit K Chatterjee

Limited Liability Partnership - A New Entity

Limited Liability Partnership, A New Beginning

The Indian Government may allow a new form of Legal Entity in India called as Limited Liability Partnership and the proposed change may be one of the key features in the forthcoming budget Limited Liability Partnership (LLP) has element of Partnership and Corporations. A limited partnership is a form of partnership similar to a general partnership, except that in addition to one or more general partners (GPs), there are one or more limited partners (LPs). The GPs are, in all major respects, in the same legal position as partners in a conventional firm, i.e. they have management control, share the right to use partnership property, share the profits of the firm in predefined proportions, and have joint and several liabilities for the debts of the partnership.

As in a general partnership, the GPs have actual authority as agents of the firm to bind all the other partners in contracts with third parties that are in the ordinary course of the partnership's business. Professionals and Investors across the world are initiating business via Limited Liability Partnership due to the following numerous advantage.

  • Easy to Form
  • Liability of all partner are Limited
  • Beneficial Tax planning
  • Partner’s has the right to manage business directly
  • Easy to dissolve
  • Little Compliances  as compared to Corporate ie Non maintenance of Statutory records and Minutes
  • Flexible Management Structure
  • Flexible Capital Structure

Mainly LLP is the most favored business model among professionals in law, accounting and financial services in the developed world.

Disadvantage of LLP are

  • Public Listing of LLP are not possible
  • Restriction on Ownership
  • Interest not as Freely Transferable
  • Limited merger opportunity
  • LLP and LLc are not available across every country of the world

In 2005, The Ministry of Company affairs has brought a concept paper on Limited Liability. In the Year 2006 the Limited Liability Partnership Bill was introduced in the Parliament. The Limited Liability Partnership Act is yet to be enacted.

Enactment of this act shall be the entry of one new legal structure and provide more flexibility to the entrepreneurs

Happy and Productive Surfing

Vinay Gupta


Exporting to Overseas Retailers - Are You Ready ?

Exporting directly to small overseas retailers is a comparatively new phenomenon, brought about by Internet. Selling directly to small US or European retail outlets even 10 years back was an uphill task because of many hurdles like lack of information on buyers, expensive communication media, scant information on overseas consumer interest, difficulty in accepting small payments etc. Trade Fairs and Buying Agents were two major avenues for small and medium exporters.

Internet, acting like a disruptive force, brought about major changes in traditional supply chain of

Exporter   >   Buying Agent   >   Importer   >   Distributor   >   Stockiest   >   Retailer

Seamless, easy and inexpensive communication through continents brought exporter and retailer closer, removing many myths and wrong notions. The retailer suddenly discovered how much he/she stand to gain by importing directly because of huge price difference between merchandise of local stockiest and that of exporter's. The exporter found the middlemen disappearing and was too glad to deal directly with buyer.

The phenomenon has been aptly described by many such as Sigurd Helland in Import Your Own Products And Make Your Profit Margin Miles Wider, Online Or Off and Robert Nelson in Importing Made Easy

Today, traditional supply chain is still in use for major chunk of exportable merchandise - but direct transaction between exporters and overseas retailers is growing very fast. Smart exporters have already organized themselves for serving overseas retailers - but Are you ready ? We discuss here what it takes to be successful in this new area of opportunity.

Retailer Buys in Small Quantity

If you plan to address small retailers - forget container load quantities. The business of retail is such that - large purchase can block money and even jeopardize business. The retailer may variously coin order quantity as 'first order' or 'sample order' - but it is very unlikely that he/she will ever order large quantity of one model/product. So, if your business model does not permit small order - retailer is not really your forte. Others may find Minimum Order Quantity a valuable clause in their product catalog.

Orders are More Frequent

Retailer will come back with repeat orders more often than a large importer as he/she can neither afford to maintain large inventory nor can keep rack space empty. Export orders will come as often as consumers demand, such as during Christmas season.

Margins are Higher

Silver line for exporters - you may compensate smaller quantity with higher price. Compared to the price charged by local stockiest - the retailer is unlikely to feel sizeable pinch and may not object to slightly higher price provided you communicate smoothly.

Be Sensitive to Issue of Trust

Importing from overseas country may bring excellent profit, but it is certainly more risky than buying from local distributor or stockiest. The issue of trust will always play on the mind of retailer, specially during first transaction, and he/she is likely to keep the first order as low as possible. The exporter should be sensitive to this concern and negotiate accordingly.

Prefer Air Freight

Most small retailers are not equipped to handle logistics operators and are uncomfortable with long delivery period in sea freight. Air freight, though more expensive, suits retailer's requirements better. However, the retailer may not be aware with these issues, specially the first timers. As exporter, you should quote air freight as much as possible and educate the retailer if necessary.

How to Get Information on Retailers

There are many retailers' associations in USA and Europe. You may contact them for their list of members. Easier option is to contact The Great Indian Bazaar who has compiled a directory of over 2000 overseas retailers (small retail outlets, convenience stores, drop shippers, large retail chains etc).

Conclusion

Exporting to small overseas retailers does not require significant investment and shipment can easily be handled through couriers. As a result, small Indian exporters and those new to export field will find this opportunity very lucrative. Margin from single shipment may not be much - but a handful of active retailers can keep a small to medium exporter busy throughout the year.

Happy and Productive Surfing

Dr. Amit K Chatterjee

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How To Start Exporting

Wondering how to start exporting? Smart move. Exporting is a great way to grow your business, simply by giving new markets access to your products and services.

Business is booming and you're looking for a way to expand your market.
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You've always toyed with the idea of taking your business global, but the timing has never seemed right. Now the timing may be right, but you don't have any idea how to do it.

Sound familiar? Every day, hundreds of small business owners take the leap and begin selling their products internationally. If they can do it, so can you.

However, the decision to export shouldn't be taken lightly. Do it wrong and you'll find yourself dealing with financial and even legal problems that will make your head spin. But do it right and the world can be yours.

Step 1: Evaluate Your Goals

Before you decide to export your products overseas, you first need to determine what you expect to happen as a result of your international ventures. If you're looking to turn a quick profit, then exporting probably isn't a good idea. It takes time to build up a successful exporting business, so make sure you're prepared for the long-term commitment it requires.

Step 2: Determine Feasibility

After you've assessed your goals, the next step is to determine whether or not exporting is even feasible for your business. To do this, you'll need to start gathering information about foreign markets, product demand, and how you'll get your product overseas.

Luckily, you won't have to do this on your own. Help is available from the U.S. Department of Commerce. Log on to their Export website for more information. Be sure to check out their Exporting Basics microsite. It's packed with tons of great exporting information.

Step 3: Pick a distribution method

If exporting seems like a viable option, it's now time to start nailing down specifics about how your product will be distributed in a foreign market. There are a lot of ways to do this ranging from opening a foreign subsidiary of your company to placing your product on the shelves of a few existing stores. Usually, the best choice for a small business new to exporting is to partner with someone who is already active in the country in which you hope to sell your products. You can accomplish this through agents, distributors, or joint ventures. Use the contacts you established in Step 2 to locate potential partners.

Step 4: Research pricing, cultural, and legal issues

With the help of your partners, start researching the issues that will impact the ability to deliver your products to the doorsteps of foreign customers. How much will you charge for your product overseas? What changes are needed to make your product attractive to non-American buyers? What legal hoops do you need to jump through to make your exports a reality? All of these are questions that need to be answered before you can move on to the final step.

Step 5: Prepare & Ship Your Products

Using all the information you gathered in Step 4, prepare your products for shipment. Solicit input from your foreign partners before you package your products to make sure nothing gets "lost in translation". Your partners may also be able to point you toward a cost-efficient and reliable method of shipping.

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Import/Export Businesses

 

Launching an Import/Export Business

Starting an import/export business? This article is an excellent entrepreneurial resource for companies that are considering starting an importing business or starting an exporting business.

On any given day, millions of dollars worth of goods are traded on the global market.
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Some of those goods are exports, or products sent outside the U.S. by domestic manufacturers. Others are imports, or products manufactured abroad and brought into the U.S. to be purchased by American consumers.

Sometimes the manufacturers and distributors of imported and exported goods have established a system to deal directly with one another. However, many manufacturers and distributors don't have the resources, desire, or know-how to do it on their own. Instead, they rely on the services of a middleman – an importer/exporter – to make contacts, arrange deals, and deliver the products.

Starting an import/export business may seem daunting if for no other reason than it necessitates operating in an unfamiliar business environment. But for a business with relatively few startup costs, the rewards of importing/exporting are definitely worth it. Importers/exporters typically earn big bucks – 10% of every transaction. With a little organization and perseverance, there is nothing stopping you from turning a small start-up into a thriving import/export company.

To be fair, importing/exporting involves an endless litany of details. That being said, here is a simplified overview of what it takes to launch a successful import/export business.

STEP 1: Establish Contacts

Once you decide to enter the import/export field, your first task will be to make contacts with foreign manufacturers and distributors interested in trading with American-based firms. Start by making a list of the people you know who live outside the U.S. – friends, family members, business acquaintances, etc. You might be surprised how many contacts you already have.

But even if you don't know anybody outside the U.S., you can still make contacts through foreign-based embassies in the U.S., U.S. embassies in foreign countries, and government sponsored programs designed to stimulate global trade.

STEP 2: Identify and Research the Market

Your next step will be to identify a target industry and market. Part of your decision will be based on the contacts you have made, but you will also have to do some research to stay abreast of trends and other factors that will determine the viability of a given market.

You should also investigate trade barriers, tariffs, and other restrictions that may affect your activity. The U.S. Government Export Portal at www.export.gov will point you toward the information you need.

STEP 3: Make the Deal

After you have identified and researched your target industry and market, you can begin the process of approaching your domestic and international contacts about their needs. Your job will be to play the role of matchmaker, matching manufacturers and distributors in the U.S. with foreign partners and vice versa.

Once you've made the match, you'll need to negotiate a deal that is satisfactory to both parties. The terms of the deal will need to be agreed upon in writing, taking into account issues such as price, quantity, delivery timeframe, shipping and letters of credit (secured payments).

STEP 4: Deliver the Goods

Many businesses employ the services of an importer/export simply because they don't want to deal with transporting their products internationally. That means you'll need to learn how to cut through the red tape and oversee the products delivery in a timely manner. This will get easier as you grow increasingly familiar with the process and establish relationships with shipping companies.

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Preparing Your Products For Export

 

Preparing your products for export requires a simple understanding of exporting best practices. Fortunately, we've done your homework for you by assembling some of the smartest exporting advice around.

Exporting opens the door to a new world of opportunities in small business.
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However, exporting success can be elusive, even for the most resilient entrepreneurs. To better your chances, you need to plan ahead and properly prepare your products before they hit the shelves overseas.

The process of product preparation for exporting may seem overwhelming, but it doesn't have to be. All it takes is the ability to see your product through the eyes of a foreign consumer. If you can do that, the rest is just common sense.

Engineering & Redesign

Many first-time exporters mistakenly believe that the only modifications they'll need to make to their products are superficial ones. In reality, exporting may necessitate fundamental changes in a product before it is ready to be sold abroad. For example, foreign electrical standards are much different than electrical standards in the U.S. If you fail to account for the electrical standard in your target market, your product will be unusable or (worse yet) even dangerous.

Something else you may need to consider is whether your product is engineered in the metric system. Outside of the U.S., the metric system is standard, and unless your product is engineered accordingly, it may not integrate with other products.

Labeling & Packaging

Language and culture present another challenge in preparing your product for export. As a small business owner, you already know that what's on the outside of the package is just as important as the product inside. Regardless of where the product was manufactured, foreign consumers want to see packaging that is appealing to them and labeled in their own language.

Carefully examine your label for cultural references (e.g. a U.S. flag) that play well at home, but fall flat overseas. Then consult your foreign partners to learn how your label can be altered to be more attractive to a foreign customer base. You should also rely on your foreign partners for help in translating package language, weights, and measures to accommodate your export market.

Installation & Warranties

One last area that needs to be addressed is the packaging that goes inside the box. Installation instructions are worthless unless they can be easily understood by the consumer. You're going to need help with this since installation instructions require technical language that usually doesn't translate well between languages. To minimize the confusion, you may want to consider preassembling certain elements before shipping.

Likewise, warranty information can be a source of confusion for foreign customers. Make sure your warranty is clearly stated in the customer's language and take the necessary measures to handle claims when they arise.

The good news is that you can use a strong warranty as a way to break into a new market as long as the customer is able to understand the scope of the warranty and how to contact the company when problems occur.

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What is an Import Export Business?

By Diana Bocco

Import export businesses, also known as international trading, are one of the hottest commercial trends of this decade. American companies trade in over 2.5 trillion dollars a year in merchandise, of which small businesses control over 95 percent. As the owner of an import export enterprise, you can work as a distributor by focusing on exporting and importing goods and services that cannot be obtained on national soil (e.g., Russian caviar and French perfumes) or those that are cheaper when imported from other countries (e.g., Chinese electronics). In addition, you can also open an export management company (EMC), where you can help an existing corporation market its products in a foreign country by arranging the shipping and storing of the merchandise for them without doing the actual selling. EMCs can specialize in one industry or work with different types of import export manufacturers. It is also possible to act as a broker for a company, working on commission over the actual sales. This is a great choice for products that are guaranteed to sell because of high demand or an established brand name.

While basically any country can offer opportunities for import export trade, Canada, Mexico, Japan, and China have topped the trading chart for the past two decades. In the last few years, countries in the former Soviet Union and South America have become major players, but there's still much to learn about trading with these new markets.

Opening an import export business requires an initial investment of $5,000 or more, depending not only on the type of merchandise you're setting up to market, but also on whether you plan on working from home or renting an office, hiring employees, etc. Compared to other businesses, however, import export companies have a very low startup cost. While most products can be exported without the need for licenses, some specialty products or high-risk items, such as firearms or pharmaceuticals, may require special government permits. If that's the case, costs may run considerably higher.

To get started, it may be sensible to consult with the local Board of Trade (or the Chamber of Commerce in smaller cities) or call Consulates and Embassies to find out if they have import export programs set up. Many embassies even have a special department to promote the export of their goods to other countries and are more than happy to help potential import export traders.

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Getting Started in Imports and Exports

Introduction

Businesses of all sizes become involved in importing and exporting for a variety of reasons. Whether you want to increase your sales abroad, import a new product to sell in the UK, or bring in components for your business; importing and exporting can provide you with a whole new range of products and customers.

Despite its many advantages, importing and exporting can be complicated and expensive; there are many rules, regulations, and situations that need taking into account. Here is a look at some of the most important things to look at when you want to start importing and/or exporting.

Are Your Products Suitable?

The most important thing to look at when you plan importing or exporting is whether the products you are moving are able to be imported (either to the UK, or to the country you are exporting to).

Although most products are suitable for import and export, a number of products are restricted in the UK; including some foods, some flowers, plants or seeds, some types of electronic equipment and certain types of art and antiques are also restricted.), and each country will have a different list of restricted products. You should always find out as soon as possible if the product you wish to move is restricted.

A number of items will require a licence from the Department of Trade and Industry’s (DTI) Import Licensing Branch to be imported legally.

Will Your Products Work?

A crucial element of importing or exporting is knowing that the product will work. If you import an electrical item, will it need a new plug or adaptor to run? Is it compatible with other UK accessories and products? Are the instructions and product details in the right language? Some countries and products require readable instructions by law.

e.g. Company X import a Games Console / Computer from Japan to sell in the UK and export to France. They will need an expensive converter to allow it to run on a UK plug socket, and a different converter to allow it to run on a French plug socket. They will also be unable to use UK/French games or accessories, leaving their customers with only Japanese instructions and Japanese language games.

When importing, do you need to add the cost of modifications or extras to the product price, and will your customers be happy paying for them, particularly if there are no English instructions; or will you be forced to cover their cost?

When exporting, will the buyers be happy paying for the extras, or will they expect you to pay for them? Are they aware that the product may be unusable without them? Are they aware that the product may not have instructions in French?

1

2 Export and Import Regulations and Taxes 3 Payments and Insurance with Exports and Imports

4 How Will Exports Be Sold

5 Import and Export Links and Web Sites

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Payments and Insurance with Exports and Imports

(i) Currency

It is important to remember that when you import or export goods, you may be required to pay (or accept payment) in a number of currencies. You need to arrange with the supplier or buyer in advance who will bear the costs of exchanging the currency (e.g. From Euros to Pounds); this can affect the costs a considerable amount and may need some negotiation to find the fairest option.

In most cases the buyer (importer) will pay the currency conversion charges, although it now a lot easier for payment to be converted as it enters the bank account (particularly with Euro payments).

(ii) Payment methods

Open Account (OA)

An open account is where you credit check the buyer, and organise an appropriate credit limit and credit period for payment. When you ship the goods, the payment is due a set number of days after.

This type of payment method is normally used only in strong or long-term business relationships, where you can be sure that the buyer will pay.

This type of payment is preferable to small businesses when importing, helping you keep positive cash flow. It is however much more preferable to have payment in advance when exporting.

Documentary Collection (DP, DA)

This where the exporter/seller sends a number of documents to the customer’s bank; when the customer pays in full, the bank gives them the import and release documents (DP).

In some cases, the customer will sign a ‘bill of exchange’, which sets out a specific number of days to pay (e.g. 90 days after collection). When the customer signs the bill, they will receive the import and release documents (DA).

This is an effective method of payment for small businesses, as it helps provide security for both the buyer and seller. You must be sure however, if allowing a number of days to pay, that the customer is reliable and creditworthy. Otherwise you may be left needing to claim in court to retrieve your money, which is especially difficult with foreign companies.

Documentary Letter of Credit (LC)

This is where the customer’s bank provides a ‘letter of credit’, which promises to pay the supplier as long as the terms are met (and the bank has the money to pay) (ILC). There s also a ‘confirmed irrevocable letter of credit’ (CILC). This is a promise by a UK (or a large world bank) to pay the supplier, and is even more secure than an ordinary letter of credit.

A letter of credit is the most secure way to be paid, but you must be careful to ensure that all documents related to the sale are correct, as a serious mistake can make the letter of credit worthless.

Payment in Advance

This is the most preferable method of payment for a small business looking to export. It helps keep your cash flow positive, and minimises your risk in exporting. The main drawback is that few buyers will be willing to pay in advance, in case of problems with the order.

One solution is to arrange for part payment in advance. This provides some security that you will be paid, and helps to fund the cost of production and shipping; whilst allowing the buyer to check the quality of the goods before parting with the rest of their money.

Payment in advance is not preferable if you are importing, but if you are left with no other option, be certain to take Goods in Transit Insurance to help cover you against any problems.

Terms Of Delivery

It is essential that all importing or exporting be covered by an effective set of delivery terms. In the event of a late or damaged delivery, the costs to the importer could be huge.

Incoterms are a set of international standard definitions that allow terms to be set without the risk of confusion, even when translated into different languages.

Incoterms help to set out fair compensation rules in the event of a late, damaged, or missing delivery. They can also set out fair payment details once a complete delivery has been made.

More information on Incoterms is available at the International Chamber of Commerce Incoterms website.

 

Insurance

One way to protect your business against a damaged or late delivery is to take out Goods in Transit Insurance. This covers the goods against damage, loss, late delivery or no delivery while in transit, providing cover against the damage that a late delivery can cause to a buyer.

This is particularly important if you are an exporter, as the cost of replacing goods will usually be very high, as well as the cost of the business you may lose because of the problem.

1 Getting Started in Imports and Exports

2 Export and Import Regulations and Taxes

3 Payment – Insurance

4 How Will Exports Be Sold

5 Import and Export Links and Web Sites

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Duties and VAT

It is vital to ensure that you pay the correct duties and VAT on all products that you import. There are number of different excise duties (e.g. Alcohol or Tobacco duty) that apply to goods, and you need to be sure that you are paying the correct rates.

In the majority of cases, you do not need to charge duty or VAT on exports. You must have official or commercial evidence of non-EU exports to not charge VAT. The rules are different depending on the product and whether it is being exported in or out of the EU. Before you start exporting, you must make sure that you are fully aware of any duty or VAT you need to pay when exporting.

As small businesses may not be VAT registered, the rules will vary depending on the product, you should be certain to clarify the duty or VAT you will need to pay, and how this will change if you register for VAT in the near future.

Depending on the amount you import and export, some business will be entitled to claim back some of the duty or VAT payments that you make. A number of businesses are also entitled to delay payment of duties (mainly for goods imported from outside the EU).

(ii) Customs Entries

If you are importing from outside of the EU or from special EU territories (including the Canary Islands and the Channel Islands), then the goods you bring in will almost always need to be entered and declared to Customs and Excise as they arrive (Either yourself or by an approved agent).

The vast majority of exports outside of the EU or to special EU territories also need to be declared to Customs and Excise as they leave the country.

If you are importing or exporting from within the EU, then a customs declaration is not usually necessary. Although if you are VAT registered, and your EU imports or exports exceed a set amount (currently £233,000 a year) you will need to fill in a supplementary declaration form each month.

(iii) Training

The exact details of import and export regulations are long and complicated, one way to help improve your businesses ability is to undertake import/export training. This will help you (or a chosen employee) to understand in more detail the rules and regulations regarding the products you move.

This will help to ensure that you pay all necessary duty, and are able to claim back all the money you may be entitled to. The cost of training can be quite high, but if your business is looking at importing or exporting in the long term, then the cost will usually be more than worth it. 

Regulations on Exports, Imports

and Customs Affairs in Free Trade-Industrial Zones

Chapter One: Definitions

Article 1

In these Regulations, the following terms are used in lieu of the respective phrases:

Zone: Each of the Free Trade-Industrial Zones as established by law.

The Law: The Law on Administration of Free Trade-Industrial Zones of the Islamic Republic of

Iran, enacted in 1373, and other laws to be enacted in this respect in the future.

Customs Territory: The state of the Islamic Republic of Iran, its territorial waters and air space

where the customs and export and import laws of the country are fully enforced.

High Council: The High Council of Free Trade-Industrial Zones of the Islamic Republic of Iran.

Authority: The organization of each Free Trade-Industrial Zone.

Port and Airport Charges: The amount which an Authority collects from owners of goods and

or air freight forwarders for the provision of port and airport facilities for the purpose of

maritime and air transport and aircraft traffic.

Service Charges: The amounts which the Authority of each Zone collect for operations,

extraordinary testing and tariff classification, issuance of the certificate of origin and other

services rendered at the time of provisional exportation or importation, transit, transshipment and

returning the goods abroad.

Value Added: The difference between the price of the goods and the value of the material used

in their production.

Value: With respect to the goods imported to Free Zones, it is the C.I.F. price of the goods.

Regulations on Exports, Imports and Customs Affairs of the Free Zones: Regulation

enforced within the framework of the Law on Administration of Free Zones by an Authority,

upon approval by High Council.

Authority Customs: A division of the organization of the Zone Authority which is responsible

for enforcement of Export - Import Regulation in each Zone.

Customs office stationed in a Zone: A division of the organization of the Iranian customs

which is responsible for enforcement of the export-import regulations.

Chapter two : Authorized Customs Activities and Operations in a Zone

and Regulations thereof

A. The importation of goods into Free Trade-Industrial Zones of the Islamic Republic of Iran.

Article 2

The importation of any kind of goods to each of Zones is permitted with the exception of the

goods which are prohibited in accordance to Islamic laws or the laws of the country in which the

Zones names are stipulated or are unauthorized in accordance with special regulations of a Zone.

Note 

The importation of goods originally produced in Israel is prohibited.

Article 3

The Authority is required to communicate to the Ministry of Commerce and Iranian Customs

monthly statistics of all the goods imported into the Zone for keeping customs statistics records.

Article 4

The procedure for the importation of goods into a Zone, entailing minimum formalities shall be

drawn up by the Authority of a Zone, but in all cases observance of the rules and regulations

pertaining to hygiene, security, culture and standards, in accordance with the prevailing norms in

the Zone, shall be mandatory.

Note

Human hygiene standards shall be set by the Authority in coordination with the Ministry of

Health, Treatment and Medical Education.

Article 5

Importation of goods into a Zone is authorized in the following manners and shall be governed

by these Regulations

(1) Goods such as construction materials, tools and construction implements for building,

manufacturing, commercial services, housing and infra-structural purposes (excluding decorative

items and furniture) that enter a Zone from abroad or other parts of the country are, at the

discretion of the Zone Authority and in quantities needed, exempt from payment of port and

airport changes but are subject to service charges.

(2) Machinery, raw materials, components, and parts required for production, productive

equipment and implements, spare parts for producing machinery for capital transportation

vehicles (excluding passenger cars and leisure boats) are exempt from payment of port and

import changes but are subject to service charges.

(3) Goods that enter Zone from abroad or from other Free Zones (excluding goods specified in

paragraph (1) and (2) of this Article) and are conclusively cleared from customs shall be subject

to the payment of port and airport charge, in the event that the said good are re-exported solely

the port and airport changes shall be reimbursed.

(4) Entry of goods for safekeeping in bonded warehouses for specified period is authorized.

The transfer of such goods to the said warehouses is subject to internal transit formalities of the

Zone concerned and the use and transport of goods from the said warehouses without the

knowledge and authorization of procedures of the Authority shall be considered a violation of the

Regulations.

(5) Excepting the cases where the Authority of a Zone may decide other arrangements,

temporary importation of goods from abroad, other Free Zones of the country or from the

customs territory, for display at fairs and exhibitions, re-export, re-packaging, separating,

grading and sorting, clearing, mixing and similar purposes is authorized, subject to the payment 

of service charges, under the supervision of the Authority of each Zone. The use or sale of such

goods in the Zone which is imported from abroad, shall he subject to port and airport charges,

based on the value of the goods at the value date of their entry into the Zones, and the customs

formalities are finalizes.

Note

The goods that enter a Zone from abroad or from other Free Zones or from other parts of the

country for the purpose of finishing or repair are authorized imports on a temporary basis and in

accordance with the rules of tile Zone and upon payment of service charges but are exempt from

Port and airport charges. The time limit for keeping such goods in a Zone on a temporary basis

shall be a maximum of two years.

(6) The entry and unloading of goods in Zone ports as designated by the Authority for the

purpose of transshipment and external transit are permitted, subject to the payment of service

charges and the completion of required formalities.

(7) All the goods transported from abroad destined for the Free Zones or from Free Zones

destined for abroad passing through the mainland are subject to the regulations and procedures of

foreign transit subject of Article (7) of the Regulations on Customs Affairs Law which shall be

implemented with utmost simplicity and minimum formalities.

Note

External transit of legally prohibited goods requires the authorization of the High Council of Free

Zones

B. Exportation and Exit of Goods from the Free Trade-Industrial

Zones of the Islamic Republic of Iran.

Article 6

Upon observance or respective Regulations, the Authority is authorized to issue certificates of

origin for goods which leave the Zone. The respective official authorities within the Iranian

territory are obliged to accept such certificate of origin.

Article 7

The exportation of goods from the Free Zones are subject to the guidelines determined by the

Authority within the framework of these Regulations which shall be implemented with utmost

simplicity and minimum formalities.

Note

The manifest of vehicles leaving a Zone for the destination of foreign countries other Free Zones

and or other parts of the country is valid, upon confirmation by the Authority.

Article 8

The Authority is required to report to the Ministry of Commerce and Iranian customs monthly

statistical recordings.

Article 9

The exportation or exit of goods from a Zone is authorized in accordance with regulations and

the following manner:

(1) The exportation of goods manufactured in the Zone to foreign countries or other Free Zones

of the country, regardless of whether the raw materials used in their production are originated

from inside the country, foreign countries or other Free Trade Zones of the country, is authorized

but requires submission of export declaration form for statistical records keeping.

(2) The importation of goods manufactured in the Zone into other parts of the country is exempt

from customs duties and commercial benefit tax to the extent of their value added plus the value

of the raw materials used therein, customs duties and commercial benefit tax shall be levied only

on imported raw materials and parts used in such goods.

(3) The importation of foreign good (including consumer goods, raw materials, machinery and

other goods) which are shipped intact from a Zone to other parts of the country is permitted, hut

their clearance from customs is subject to observance of the general Export - Import Regulations

and customs regulations of the country.

(4) The exportation of domestic goods, if intact, from a Zone to foreign countries is subject to

compliance with the general Export - import Regulations of the country;

(5) The temporary entry of goods to a Zone from other parts of the country for the purpose of

repairs or finishing which are returned to the country after finishing or repairs, is authorized and

is subject to the procedures set forth in the Customs Law, they are exempt from customs duties

and commercial benefit tax with respect to the amount of the wages paid for such repairs and

finishing, but replace or added parts and components and prices of foreign origin shall he subject

to customs duties and commercial benefit tax on the basis of the general Export-Import

Regulations of the country;

(6) The temporary exit of goods from a Zone to foreign destination or other parts of the country

(excluding the goods that have entered into a Zone from other parts of the country) is permitted

upon obtaining prior authorization from the authority, such goods are exempt from port and

airport charges when returned to the Zone.

Article 10

The exportation or exit of goods from the premises of a Zone in any one of the manners

mentioned in paragraphs of Article (9) is subject to the payment of service charges to a Zone, if

services and facilities of the respective Zone are utilized.

C. Regulations on Goods Accompanying Passengers

Article 11

Travelers, whether Iranian or foreigners, who directly enter a Zone through authorized airports or

ports are allowed to bring along into a Zone goods (excluding the goods prohibited by religion or

law) to the extent that they are not of commercial nature and clear them without payment of port

and airport changes.

Note

Natural or legal persons intending to reside in a Zone for more than one year and whose

residence is approved by the Authority are allowed to import into a Zone only once their

household appliances and office equipment in reasonable quantities without payment of port and

airport charges.

Article 12

Travelers who depart directly to foreign destination from a Zone are allowed to take along all

goods (excluding the goods prohibited by religion or Law) without obtaining authorization,

provided that the goods are not of commercial nature.

Note

Sending out antiques, handwritten books, original cultural objects and various coins is not

permitted.

Article 13

Goods accompanying travelers who intend to leave a Zone for other parts of the country shall be

subject to the general Export-Import Regulations of the country.

D. Regulations on violations

Article 14

The Authority is required to refrain from clearance from customs the goods whose importation is

prohibited or can not be cleared from customs in accordance with the Zone’s regulations,

excluding the religiously or legally prohibited goods, in which the names of the Free Zones are

stipulated if such goods are declared with full name and complete particulars and specifications

for the purpose of final importation, and must notify in writing owner of the goods or his

representative that he must send the goods out of the Zone within a maximum period of time

determined by the Authority . Goods prohibited by religion or law shall in which the names of

the Free Zones are stipulated be governed by relevant regulations.

E. Miscellaneous Regulations

Article 15

Wherever, it turns out after customs clearance of goods, that the funds whose collection is a duty

of the Authority were received in excess of or less than the required amount, the Authority and

the owner of the goods can claim and receive, as the case may be, the respective differential

within four months from the date of signing the clearance document of the goods concerned.

Article 16

Air and maritime freight forwarding agencies and owners or users of transport vehicles are

required to submit, at the time of the entry of the transport vehicles into the authorized airport,

port and or land terminals, to the Authority one photocopy or copy of the bill of lading relating to

each item of the goods attached to the list of the whole cargo.

Article 17

Control of and supervision over the importation and exportation of goods from Free Zone to the

other parts of the country shall be the function of Customs Office of the Islamic Republic of Iran.

The head of customs office stationed in a Zone shall be appointed by the director of Customs

Office, upon the proposal by the Authority.

Note

The control of and supervision over the importation and exportation of goods from Free Zone to

other countries shall be the function of the Authority Customs Office, in accordance with these

regulations and the relevant legal guidelines.

http://travel.state.gov/travel/cis_pa_tw/cis/cis_1089.html

Port of shanghai

The Port of Shanghai is China's most populous city, the world's second busiest seaport, and one of the world's largest cities by area. Located on the mouth of the Yangtze River in east central China off the East China Sea, the Port of Shanghai is a municipality with province status in the People's Republic of China. The Port of Shanghai is about 421 kilometers southeast of the Port of Lianyungang and about 430 nautical miles north of the Port of Taipei in Taiwan. The Port of Shanghai is also one of the most popular tourist destinations in the world. In 2002, over 16.2 million people lived in the Port of Shanghai municipality.

The Port of Shanghai is China's leading commercial and financial center, and it has been called the world's fastest-growing economy. The Port of Shanghai rivals Hong Kong as the economic heart of the Chinese mainland, but Shanghai has stronger ties to the mainland and to the central government. The Port of Shanghai also has a more solid base in the manufacturing and technology sectors. Experiencing a building boom, Shanghai's architectural style is unique and recognizable in its range of height, design, color, and unusual features.

Port History

From the 5th to 7th Centuries AD, the area of today's Port of Shanghai was known as Shen or Hudu. It had few residents and was not developed. In 1074 during the Song Dynasty, Shanghai was upgraded from village to market town status. However, its position on the Yangtze River delta slowed down its growth. A second sea wall was added in 1172 to stabilize the coastline. Under the Yuan Dynasty, the Port of Shanghai became an official city in 1297.

The Port of Shanghai began to develop during the Ming Dynasty. A city wall was constructed in 1554 to protect the town from Japanese pirates, and the City God Temple was built in 1602. Recognizing the town's economic importance, these two events did much to promote development.

By 1735, the Port of Shanghai became the Yangtze region's most important seaport due to two significant factors. During the Qing Dynasty in 1684, the port was allowed to accept ocean-going vessels, and Shanghai gained exclusive control over customs collections for all foreign trade in Jiangsu Province.

In the 19th Century, the Port of Shanghai's importance grew tremendously. It occupied a valuable strategic position for trade with the West. The British held the Port of Shanghai briefly during the First Opium War. When the war ended with the Treaty of Nanjing in 1842, the Port of Shanghai became one of the treaty ports open for international trade. Further agreements, the Treaty of the Bogue (1843) and the Sino-American Treaty of Wangsai (1844), exempted foreign powers from local laws and began the era of foreign concessions.

The British and American settlements joined in 1863 to form the International Settlement in the Port of Shanghai, while the French maintained their own separate French Concession. The Port of Shanghai became a magnet for foreigners who stayed there for years, sometimes for generations, calling themselves Shanghailanders. The Port of Shanghai became an official municipality in 1927 under the Republic of China, but the foreign communities were still exempted from Chinese control.

White Russians and Russian Jews fleeing the new Soviet Union came to the Port of Shanghai by the thousands in the 1920s and 1930s. The "Shanghai Russians" grew to be the second-largest foreign group. By 1932, the Port of Shanghai was the world's fifth biggest city and had a foreign population of 70 thousand.

The Second Sino-Japanese War, lasting from 1937 until 1945, made the Japanese community an important group in the Port of Shanghai. They built the first factories in the Port of Shanghai which other foreigners soon copied, starting Shanghai's industrial sector.

In early 1932, the Japanese bombed the Port of Shanghai, ostensibly in response to student protects of the occupation of northeast China. In 1937, the Battle of Shanghai ended in Japan's occupation of the non-foreign areas of Shanghai, and the Japanese occupied the International Settlement in 1941, holding it until 1945. In 1949, the People's Liberation Army, controlled by China's Communist Party, took control of the Port of Shanghai, and most foreign interests moved to Hong Kong.

During the middle 20th Century, the Port of Shanghai grew into a busy industrial center and a strong supporter of the people's revolution. Even through the difficult years of the Cultural Revolution, the Port of Shanghai continued to be economically productive and socially stable. Throughout most of the People's Republic (Chinese) history, the Port of Shanghai has been the most significant contributor of tax revenues in China.

The Port of Shanghai's contributions to the economy of the nation came at a high price for the city. The Port of Shanghai infrastructure deteriorated, and further development was severely limited. Because the Port of Shanghai was so important to China's economy, it was not afforded many of the economic liberalizations that other areas received in the middle 1980s. Finally, in 1991, the Port of Shanghai was given permission to implement economic reforms. This began today's era of economic and building booms.

Port Commerce

The Shanghai International Port (Group) Company, Limited (SIPG) is the sole operator of the public terminals in the Port of Shanghai. The SIPG was incorporated in 2003 when the former Shanghai Port Authority was reorganized. In 2006, the SIPG became a share-holding limited company whose major shareholders include Shanghai's municipal government, China International Terminals Company Limited, and Shanghai Tongsheng Investment Group Corporation. Shanghai State-assets Operation Company and Shanghai Dasheng Assets Company are minor shareholders.

The Port of Shanghai's SIPG is responsible for handling cargo; transporting domestic and international cargo by land and water; de-stuffing, maintaining, manufacturing, and leasing containers; managing information on warehousing, processing, distribution, and port logistics; providing facilities for international passengers; piloting and towing vessels; and forwarding freight; providing in-port services; leasing port equipment and facilities; and building, managing, and operating port and terminal facilities.

SIPG operates 125 berths in the Port of Shanghai with a total quay length of about 20 kilometers. Of the total, 82 berths can accommodate vessels of 10 thousand DWT and above. SIPG owns public bulk, breakbulk, specialized roll-on/roll-off, and cruise terminals within the Port of Shanghai. It operates a total of 293 thousand square meters of warehouses and over 4.7 million square meters of storage yards. It also owns 5143 units of cargo-handling equipment.

The Port of Shanghai occupies an enviable geographic location, enjoys near-ideal natural conditions, serves a vast economically-developed hinterland, and has ample inland distribution facilities and infrastructure. The Yangtze River Delta contains a collection of some of China's most economically active cities. Agricultural and industrial activities in the Jianghan Plain and the Sichuan Basin are densely populated, and represent a powerful base for long-term sustainable growth of the Port of Shanghai. Each year, import and export trade moving through the Port of Shanghai represents one-fourth of the value of China's foreign trade. Each month, over two thousand container ships leave the Port of Shanghai, carrying their cargo to the world's major continents and markets.

Containers are the heart of the Port of Shanghai's business. Over the five-year period ending in 2006, container traffic through the Port of Shanghai increased from 6.43 million TEUs to 21.7 million TEUs. In 2008, the Port of Shanghai handled 368 million tons of cargo, including 28 million TEUs of containerized cargo, despite the worldwide financial crisis. The Port of Shanghai contains three major container areas: Wusongkou, Waigaoqiao, and Ynagshan.

In the Port of Shanghai's Wusongkou area is the Shanghai Container Terminals (SCT) Company Limited, a joint venture between the Shanghai Container Company Limited and Hutchison Port Holdings Limited. The SCT has three container terminals with 10 berths, 2.3 thousand meters of quays, and 550 thousand square meters of container yards.

Within the Port of Shanghai's Waigaoqiao Area is the Shanghai Pudong International Container Terminals Limited, a joint venture between the Shanghai Waigaoqiao Free Trade Zone Stevedoring Company, Hutchison Ports Pudong Limited, COSCO Pacific (China) Investments Limited, and COSCO Ports (Pudong) Limited. Located on the Yangtze's south bank in the Waigaoqiao Free Trade Zone, the Terminal has 900 meters of quays in three berths that can accommodate 5th and 6th generation container ships. The terminal covers a total area of 50 hectares and includes a container yard with 8200 flat container slots that can stack 30 thousand TEUs simultaneously. It also has special-purpose areas for dangerous cargo containers and reefer containers, and it offers container stuffing and stripping sheds. This modern, technology-intensive Port of Shanghai terminal has 147 units of cargo-handling equipment and a high-tech information management system to manage cargo movements.

Also within the Waigaoqiao Area at the Port of Shanghai is the SIPG Zhendong Container Terminal Branch, a wholly-owned subsidiary of SIPG. Located on the Yangtze's west bank about 85 kilometers from the river's mouth, the terminal has a total of 1566 meters of quays in five container berths. Opened in 2000, the terminal covers over 160 hectares, and it contains world-class technological facilities, equipment, and information management systems.

The Port of Shanghai's East Container Terminal Company Limited in the Waigaoqiao Area is a joint venture between SIPG and APMT Terminals. The terminal has a total of 1250 meters of quay in four container berths. Covering an area of more than 150 hectares, The Shanghai East Container Terminal strives to be the world's leading container terminal providing its customers with world-class performance, efficiency, and reliability. During its first year of operation, this Port of Shanghai terminal handled a record of over one million TEUs of containerized cargo. The terminal has received many awards for performance.

Shanghai Mingdong Container Terminals Limited, in the Port of Shanghai's Waigaoqiao Area, is a 2004 joint venture between SIPG and Hutchison. Located at the estuary of the Yangtze River, the terminal covers 163 hectares and contains four container berths and 1.1 thousand meters of quays. With a location that allows vessels of 50 thousand DWT, the terminal contains two domestic feeder line berths with 190-meter long quays and alongside depths of 12.8 and 4.0 meters.

The Port of Shanghai's Yangshan Deepwater Port contains the Shanghai Shengdong International Container Terminal Company, Limited, owned and operated by SIPG. The company manages and operates the terminals at the deepwater port and operates the nearby International Logistics Park. Launched in 2005, the terminal and logistics park are equipped with the latest technology to assure production efficiency and management systems. Capable of handling more than 2.2 million TEUs of containerized cargo, the terminal has a 3000-meter-long deep-water quay, and 34 of the world's most modern container quay cranes as well as ample additional handling and transportation equipment and facilities.

The Port of Shanghai also has non-container terminals that support the economic development of the Yangtze River Valley. Primarily located on the Huangpu River that feeds the Yangtze, they serve as distribution centers for the Port of Shanghai's hinterlands.

The SIPG Minsheng Controlled Company in the Port of Shanghai specializes in handling, storing, and transporting imports of bulk grains, oils, feeds, and exports of rice and other breakbulk and bulk cargoes. The terminal contains four 10-thousand-ton berths with alongside depth of 10 meters and total quay length of 738 meters. The terminal covers 17 hectares and includes two silos with total capacity for 120 thousand tons of grains.

The Port of Shanghai's SIPG Nanpu Branch, in the Pudong New Area, owns and operates two terminals, the Bailianjing Terminal and the Tangkou Terminal. With easy access to water and land transportation networks, the SIPG Nanpu Branch has four 10-thousand-ton deep-water berths, two one-thousand-ton berths, and 43 thousand square meters of storage hard. The terminals handle about five million tons per year of iron and steel, wood, and other breakbulk and bulk cargoes.

The Port of Shanghai's SIPG Coal Branch handles mostly coals and sand and gravel, and it acts as a shipping agency. The terminals cover an area of 573.5 thousand square meters and have quays totaling over two thousand meters in length. The Port of Shanghai's SIPG Coal Branch has four terminal management offices and 17 berths throughout the Huangpu River area and total storage yards of 204 thousand square meters. The combined throughput of these berths exceeds 30 million tons per year.

The SIPG Xinhua Company in the Port of Shanghai is one of the biggest comprehensive organizations in the Pudong area that handles foreign freight. Operating nine 10-thousand-ton berths with alongside depth of 10.5 meters and total quay length of 1584 meters, the company operates a total area of 422 thousand square meters. The company handles over ten million tons of cargo in the Port of Shanghai each year. Cargoes include metallic ores, chemical fertilizers, and bulk cargoes that include heavy items, steel products, and building materials).

The Port of Shanghai's SIPG Zhanghuabang Company is four kilometers from the mouth of the Yangtze on the Huangpu River. Covering a land area of 200 thousand square meters, the terminal has three 10-tgousand-ton berths and 540 meters of quays. The terminal handles about 1.8 million tons of cargo per year. This Port of Shanghai terminal specializes in handling containers, steel products, and large and heavy equipment and installations.

The SIPG Jungong Road Branch in the Port of Shanghai is located within the deep-draft channel of the Huangpu River. Covering an area of 251 thousand square meters, the terminal has four multi-purpose berths with total quay length of 743 meters and 143 thousand square meters of warehouses and storage yards. Handling foreign cargoes of iron, steel, vehicles, pulp, equipment, containers, and bulk cargoes, this Port of Shanghai company also conducts container inspections and acts as a shipping agent. It is also involved in motor transportation, manufacturing of tools and rigging, and leases and exports management technology.

The Port of Shanghai's SIPG Boashan Terminal Branch was designed in 1990 to handle 2.9 million tons of cargo per year. Its main business is servicing containers, bulk and breakbulk cargoes, steel products, and massive cargoes. Located near the Bao Steels Group and four kilometers from Wusongkou, the terminal covers 525 thousand square meters, including land area of 270 thousand square meters, and it contains quays of a total 780 meters in length (in three berths of 10-thousand-tonnage and two berths of two-thousand-tonnage). The container yard inside the Port of Shanghai is 104 thousand square meters, and the container yard outside the Port of Shanghai is 100 thousand square meters. The terminal also has 34 thousand square meters of storage area.

Serving the Hangzhou-Jiaxing-Huzhou region, the SIPG Longwu Branch in the Port of Shanghai is located on the upper Huangpu River. The facility has nine cargo vessel berths, including five container berths, and 20 inland barge berths. Covering about 740 thousand square meters in the Port of Shanghai, the Longwu Branch is engaged in a number of activities that include cargo-handling, freight agency services, water and land transport of goods, and manufacture and maintenance of machines.

The Port of Shanghai's SIPG Luojing Subsidiary Company specializes in handling bulk cargoes. Located on the Yangtze's south bank about 38 kilometers from the city center, this new high-tech port area covers about 500 thousand square meters and has an unloading quay with alongside depth of 11 meters. The unloading quay can accommodate vessels up to 180 thousand DWT (after load reduction), and the loading quay (with alongside depth of 8 meters) can accommodate ships on either side. The company supports the Port of Shanghai's large steelworks on the Yangtze and iron ore merchants. The storage yard has capacity for more than 1.1 million tons of cargo.

The Port of Shanghai's SIPG Passenger Transport Corporation handles passenger traffic and domestic freight. Located in the North Bund Area, the waterfront terminal contains eight berths of a total 1.1 thousand meters that can accommodate vessels from 7 to 10 thousand DWT.

The first terminal in China, and the only terminal in the Port of Shanghai, that handles roll-on/roll-off traffic is the Shanghai Haitong International Terminal. It provides comprehensive logistics services. The Phase 1 Terminal berth is 219.4 meters long with alongside depth of 14 meters, and it can accommodate 5th and 6th generation roll-on/roll-off vessels. This Port of Shanghai terminal covers 265 thousand square meters, and it has a yard that can park seven thousand cars. The terminal offers other services that include PDI, battery charging, and tire inflation. The Phase 2 terminal will cover an area of 100 thousand square meters and contain specialized facilities like warehouses for vehicles and components.

The Port of Shanghai's Yangtze River Strategy seeks to foster the port's container market and strengthen its cargo-consolidation network by increasing hinterland cargo sources and increasing exports. The SIPG will promote the upgrading of vessel size and standards in the Port of Shanghai and improve navigation and shipping capacity to create a regional cargo-gathering network that covers the whole Yangtze River Valley.

The Port of Shanghai's Northeast Asia Strategy aims to develop ship-to-ship transshipment operations, to establish the Port of Shanghai as an international shipping center, and to rapidly develop the SIPG. The strategy involves focusing the functions and services provided by the Yanghsan deep-water port and the Waigaoqiao and Wusongkou port areas to increase efficiency, establish an effective and economical barging system, and to integrate port operations. The SIPG will develop a cargo-gathering public feeder network in the Port of Shanghai for the Northeast Asia region and develop seamless connections between for the Yangtze and coastal and international transshipment. The theme of the marketing effort is the concept of "The Port of Shanghai, Your Best Choice."

SIPG will implement an Internationalization Strategy to increase the Port of Shanghai's capacity for international operations, improve its management of international trade, and form a cross-regional, multi-national network that serves both the domestic and international markets.

Cruising and Travel

Every year, the City of Shanghai welcomes hundreds of thousands of tourists from around the world. Westerners seem to view the Port of Shanghai as a land of special oriental charm, and the Chinese view it as a modern Western-style city. Young people think the Port of Shanghai is an old traditional city, and the older generations say it is modern and chic. No matter who you are, you will think the Port of Shanghai is a perfect vacation destination.

With fascinating traditional and modern architecture and a range of colorful neighborhoods and suburbs, the Port of Shanghai is famous for its varied and delicious dining opportunities. It is also one of the most popular shopping centers in the world. The Port of Shanghai has far too many tourist attractions and activities to describe in this article. For detailed information about the many things to see and do in the Port of Shanghai, please visit the city's tourism website.

The Port of Shanghai has a humid subtropical climate with four distinct seasons. Winters can be cold, although snow falls only one or two days a year. Summer is hot and humid, punctuated by occasional thunderstorms or downpours. The Port of Shanghai is also vulnerable to typhoons that have caused significant damage in the past. Spring and autumn are the most comfortable seasons, although the weather changes quickly. Temperatures range from an average high of 31 °C (89 °F) in July and August to an average low of 0.5 °C (33 °F) in January.

Travelers to the Port of Shanghai should not miss a visit to the Yuyuan Garden, an historic garden and temple originally built in the late 16th century but destroyed during the First Opium War in 1842. Restored in 1961, the gardens are full of pathways that wind through bamboo stands and rock gardens where stone bridges cross carp-filled pools. With unique pavilions, halls, and cloisters, the gardens contain six major scenic areas. Visitors will find peaceful spots for meditation, halls built for ancient ceremonies, and curio shops full of delightful souvenirs. The treasure of the Yuyuan Garden is the Exquisite Jade Rock. About 3.3 meters tall, the rock has 72 holes that connect inside the rock. When water is poured on the top of the rock, it flows out from each of the holes.

The Shanghai Museum may well be China's best museum. It contains a treasure of ancient Chinese art and some 120 thousand relics. This Port of Shanghai attraction contains bronzes, pottery, paintings, and calligraphies from China's distinguished 5000-year history. From afar, the museum looks like an ancient bronze cooking vessel, and from above, it looks like a big Han Dynasty bronze mirror. Located in the People's Square in the center city, the architecture is a square base with a round top that symbolizes the ancient Chinese vision of a square earth under a round sky. The museum contains eleven galleries and three special halls for temporary exhibits.

In the early 20th Century, The Bund (Zhongshan Road) was the most famous street in Asia. It was here that foreign powers entered the Port of Shanghai after the First Opium War in 1842 to build their Western-style trading houses and banks. Today, it is a treasured collection of architecture that contains styles from the Gothic and late Renaissance to Art Deco, and it is home to some of the Port of Shanghai's nicest bars, restaurants, and shops. From here, visitors can board a ferry to Pudong, a sightseeing boat, or gaze across the river to the new development of Lusiazui.

The Port of Shanghai's Old Town is the center of the old Chinese city and the first part of Shanghai to be settled by the Chinese. Foreigners seldom ventured here, and the area retains its unique Chinese heritage. Visitors can enjoy a huge temple bazaar near Shanghai Old Street or get souvenirs or antiques in reconstructed Ming and Qing Dynasty shop houses. The Taoist Temple of the Town God is at the eastern end, and the main square with the Bridge of Nine Turnings is in the center of the Old Town complex. The Port of Shanghai's Old Town is called Yuyuan. It is a Shanghai treasure with gardens, temples, traditional architecture, and shops. Within the Port of Shanghai's Old Town is the "kingdom of snack." Yuyuan contains many interesting and beautiful temples, gardens, mosques, bridges, and the former home of Dr. Sun Yetsen.

Travelers who want to visit the Port of Shanghai by sea can find a long list of scheduled cruises on the Cruise Compete website.

Port Location:

Shanghai

Port Name:

Port of Shanghai

Port Authority:

Shanghai International Port (Group) Co., Ltd.

Address:

358 East Daming Road
Shanghai, Shanghai 200080
China

Phone:

+8621 55333388

Fax:

+8621 63217936

800 Number:

 

Email:

This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it

Web Site:

www.portshanghai.com.cn

Latitude:

31° 13' 19" N

Longitude:

121° 29' 22" E

UN/LOCODE:

CNSHA

Port Type:

Seaport

Port Size:

Very Large

Regulations on shanghai waigaoqiao free trade zone

 

(Adopted by the 32th Session of the Standing Committee of the 10th Shanghai Municipal People's Congress on December 19,1996)

Chapter I General Provisions
Article 1
With a view to further opening up to the outside world, developing international trade and promoting economic prosperity, the present Regulations are hereby formulated in accordance with the relevant State laws and regulations, in the light of international practices with regard to free trade zones and with due consideration given to the actual circumstances in Shanghai.
Article 2
Established with the approval of the State council, Shanghai Waigaoqiao Free Trade Zone (hereinafter referred to as the Free Trade Zone) is situated in Waigaoqiao district of Pudong New Area of Shanghai. It is a zone for economic and trade activities with enclosure facilities where special administration is exercised.
Goods may be freely carried in or out between the Free Trade Zone and outside Chinese mainland territory, exempt from customs duties and importrelated taxes and free from inspection of licenses and routine supervision procedures of the Customs, except for imports and supervision procedures of the Customs, except for imports and exports prohibited and goods specially designated by the State.
Article 3
The Free Trade Zone mainly develops businesses such as import and export trade, entrepot trade, processing trade, storage and transport of goods, exhibition and transaction of commodities, financial services, etc..
Article 4
The Shanghai Municipal People's Government (hereinafter referred to as the Municipal People's Government) has authority over the Free Trade Zone and the Customs exercises supervision and control over customs proceedings.
Article 5
Enterprises, institutions, individuals and their respective economic activities in the Free Trade Zone must abide by the present Regulations.
Article 6
The legitimate rights and interests of investors in the Free Trade Zone shall be protected by law.
Chapter II Administration and Service Agencies
Article 7
Shanghai Waigaoqiao Free Trade Zone Administrative Committee (hereinafter referred to as the Administrative Committee) is the agency of the Municipal People's Government that shall keep unified control over administrative affairs of the Free Trade Zone and manage financial revenues and expenditures as an independent accounting unit.
The Municipal People's Government shall appoint the director of the Administrative Committee.
Article 8
The functions of the Administrative Committee are as follows:
1. To take charge of the implementation of the laws, regulations and the present Regulations in the Free Trade Zone, to formulate and promulgate specific rules for administering the Free Trade Zone;
2. To draw up plans of development planning and industrial policies of the Free Trade Zone and see to the implementation thereof upon approval of the Municipal people's Government;
3. To take charge of administrative work in such aspects as planning, Stateowned assets, investment, foreign economic trade, public finance, local taxation, statistics, industrial and commercial administration, public security, labour and personnel, foreign affairs, transportation, infrastructure, land and real estate, environmental conservation and sanitation, and public utilities, etc.;
4. To coordinate the work of such departments as the Customs, State taxation, finance, commodities inspection, etc. in the Free Trade Zone;
5. To perform other functions and powers authorized by the Municipal People's Government.
Where the administrative work listed in Paragraph 3 above involves the examination and issuance of certificates and licenses, the relevant municipal regulatory departments shall entrust corresponding administrative departments of the Administrative Committee to handle such work.
Article 9
The Customs in the Free Trade Zone shall exercise special supervision and control over the Free Trade Zone: putting on file and checking goods and articles moving between the Free Trade Zone and places outside Chinese mainland territory and goods circulating within the Free Trade Zone; routine supervision and control over goods, means of transportation and articles moving between the Free Trade Zone and non free trade areas inside Chinese mainland territory (hereinafter referred to as non free trade areas) .
Article 10
The Waigaoqiao Port Area and the Free Trade Zone shall be under uniform administration and the port authorities shall take charge of the port administration.
Article 11
The Free Trade Zone Development Corporation shall, as authorized by the Administrative Committee, undertake the construction and management of public works in the Free Trade Zone and provide services for the enterprises and
institutions in the Free Trade Zone.
Article 12
Agencies for customs declaration, inspection, labour, notarization and lawyer service may be set up according to law by the Free Trade Zone to provide services for the enterprises and institutions in the Free Trade Zone.
Chapter III Establishment of Enterprises
Article 13
Investors may, according to the laws, regulations and the present Regulations, apply for establishment of enterprises in the Free Trade Zone.
Any projects that may cause environmental pollution, endanger national security or damage social public interests shall be prohibited in the Free Trade Zone.
Article 14
Investors who intend to establish foreign invested enterprises in the Free Trade Zone shall apply to the Administrative Committee. The Administrative Committee shall, jointly with the relevant departments, decide on whether or not to approve within 20 days upon the receiving date of the complete and legally permissible application documents (hereinafter referred to as the application documents) and the industrial and commercial administration of the Administrative Committee shall issue the business licence within 3 days upon the approval date.
Investors who intend to establish other enterprises in the Free Trade Zone shall apply to the industrial and commercial administration of the Administrative Committee, which shall, jointly with the relevant departments, decide on whether or not to approve the registration within 15 days upon the receiving date of the application documents and issue business licences to those approved for registration.
The industrial and commercial administration of the Administrative Committee shall report the applications beyond its authority of examination and approval to the Administrative Committee for examination and approval. The Administrative Committee shall refer the applications beyond its authority of examination and approval to the relevant municipal department for examination and approval within 10 days upon the receiving date of the application documents.
Enterprises shall go through registration procedures for customs, taxation, foreign exchange control and commodity inspection,etc. within 30 days upon the obtaining date of business licences.
Investors shall make contributions as scheduled and undergo verification of investment.
Article 15
Enterprises in the Free Trade Zone shall operate according to law within their authorized business scopes.
Enterprises shall establish sound statistical, financial and accounting systems, set up special account books for goods and regularly submit relevant reports and statements according to law to the Administrative Committee, the Customs and the relevant departments.
Enterprises shall meet the requirements of environmental conservation in the process of construction, production and operation, and go through required procedures with the Administrative Committee according to law.
Chapter IV Rules on Business Operation
Article 16
Enterprises in the Free Trade Zone may freely carry on trade between the Free Trade Zone and outside Chinese mainland territory, being free from quotas and licences unless otherwise stipulated by the State.
Enterprises in the Free Trade Zone may freely carry on trade within the Free Trade Zone.
Enterprises in the Free Trade Zone may, according to the relevant State regulations, carry on trade with non free trade areas and with other domestic free trade zones or bonded areas.
Enterprises in the Free Trade Zone may, subject to the approval of the department in charge of foreign economic cooperation and trade of the State, act as import and export trade agents for enterprises in non free trade areas.
Article 17
Enterprises inside and outside China (including enterprises in the Free Trade Zone) may hold international commodities exhibitions in the Free Trade Zone.
Enterprises in the Free Trade Zone may set up commodities trade markets, freely take part in import and export commodities exhibitions, engage in commodities exhibitions and wholesale businesses in the Free Trade Zone, and may take part in import and export commodities exhibitions and fairs in non free trade areas. Subject to approval, enterprises in the Free Trade Zone may engage in bonded commodities exhibition activities in non free trade areas.
Article 18
Enterprises inside and outside Chinese mainland territory are encouraged to store goods in the Free Trade Zone. The storage period shall have no limit.
Enterprises may do processing business of a commercial nature such as grading, packing, sorting, subpackaging, labeling and marking of goods in the Free Trade Zone.
Article 19
Products manufactured by enterprises in the Free Trade Zone shall be mainly sold to places outside Chinese mainland territory.
Processing projects with raw materials imported from abroad and with products exported overseas are subjected to restrictions in the Free Trade Zone unless prohibited by the State industrial policies.
Subject to approval, enterprises in the Free Trade Zone may commission enterprises in non free trade areas to process materials and parts brought in from abroad and also may be commissioned by enterprises in non free trade areas
to do processing business.
Article 20
Enterprises in the Free Trade Zone are encouraged to undertake international transshipment and delivery of goods.
Subject to approval, enterprises in the Free Trade Zone may engage in container transport, forwarding agency, shipping agency and bonded transport entering and/or departing via the Free Trade Zone.
Article 21
Other international service trades may be carried on in the Free Trade Zone.
Chapter V Administration Over Exit and Entry
Article 22
Goods and articles transported directly into the Free Trade Zone from outside Chinese mainland territory or from the Free Trade Zone to places outside Chinese mainland territory shall be filed with the Customs in the Free Trade Zone for record. Goods that may adversely affect security, public sanitation and environmental conservation shall be subjected to legal tests and inspections.
Goods and articles transported from the Free Trade Zone to non free trade areas shall be regarded as imports and those transported into the Free Trade Zone from non free trade areas shall be regarded as exports. Such goods and articles shall go
through import and export procedures.
Machinery, equipment, components, spare parts, raw materials, means of transportation's, building materials and office appliances that are brought into and used in the Free Trade Zone from non free trade areas shall be passed after registration of the Customs in the Free Trade Zone.
Article 23
Motor driven vehicles entering or leaving the Free Trade Zone shall go through designated gates at checkpoints after presenting the pass issued by the public security department of the Administrative Committee and be subjected to inspection by the spot inspection authorities. Trucks carrying bonded goods shall meet the requirements for supervision stipulated by the Customs.
Article 24
International ships calling at or leaving the wharves of the Waigaoqiao Port Area shall apply to the port authorities in advance and be subjected to the port inspection.
Article 25
Persons entering and leaving the Free Trade Zone shall pass through designated checkpoints by presenting valid certificates permitted for use by the public security department of the Administrative Committee.
Article 26
No person may reside in the Free Trade Zone without permission of the Administrative Committee.
Chapter VI Financial Management
Article 27
Subject to approval by the department in charge of State financial affairs, the use of the designated foreign currencies may be allowed in the Free Trade Zone.
Article 28
Enterprises in the Free Trade Zone may open spot exchange accounts in foreign exchange according to provisions.
Goods brought into or taken out of the Free Trade Zone in a trade item shall be valuated and settled in foreign currency; fees of administrative agencies in the Free Trade Zone shall be settled in Renminbi; other fees may be settled either in foreign currency or in Renminbi.
Article 29
Enterprises in non free trade areas shall undertake verification and canceling procedures in collecting export proceeds and import payments for goods moving between the Free Trade Zone and non free trade areas.
Enterprises in the Free Trade Zone need not undertake foreign exchange verification and canceling procedures for goods moving between the Free Trade Zone and outside Chinese mainland territory but shall make statistical reports of international balance of payment.
Article 30
Subject to approval by the department in charge of State financial affairs or its authorized agency, domestic or overseas financial institutions may establish branch operation offices in the Free Trade Zone to conduct relevant financial transactions.
Article 31
Subject to approval by the department in charge of State financial affairs or its authorized agency, foreign wholly owned banks in the Free Trade Zone may engage in Renminbi transactions, Chinese and foreign financial institutions in the Free Trade Zone may engage in offshore finance, overseas financing, foreign guaranteeing and other specially permitted businesses.
Chapter VII Construction and Real Estate Management
Article 32
Enterprises and institutions in the Free Trade Zone that need to use land shall sign land use transfer contracts with the Free Trade Zone Development Corporation and go through land use procedures with the Administrative Committee.
Article 33
Enterprises and institutions in the Free Trade Zone that need to build construction projects shall apply to the administrative department for planning of the Administrative Committee for the construction project planning permits according to laws and regulations. The administrative department for planning of the Administrative Committee shall decide on whether or not to approve within 25 days upon the receiving date of the application documents. When approval is granted after examination, project planning permits shall be issued.
The administration of construction projects in the Free Trade Zone shall be carried out according to the relevant laws and regulations.
Article 34
Enterprises and institutions in the Free Trade Zone shall, according to law, apply to the real estate administrative department of the Administrative Committee for registration within 30 days after the construction project is completed and passed final acceptance. The real estate administrative department of the Administrative Committee shall issue the real estate title deed within 10 days upon the receiving date of the application documents.
Article 35
Enterprises and institutions in the Free Trade Zone may transfer, lease or mortgage the real estate that is legally obtained but shall register with the real estate administrative department of the Administrative Committee and pay taxes according to law.
Article 36
Within 30 days after the building in the Free Trade Zone is made available to users, the owner of the building shall set up a property management organization to undertake property management according to law after reporting to and gaining approval from the real estate administrative department of the Administrative Committee or shall entrust a property management company with the necessary qualifications to manage the property.
Chapter VIII Tax Provisions
Article 37
The following goods and articles brought into the Free Trade Zone from outside Chinese mainland territory shall be exempted from customs duties and import related taxes unless otherwise stipulated by the State:
1. Imported goods;
2. Transit goods;
3. Goods stored in the Free Trade Zone;
4.Raw materials, components, spare parts and packing materials needed for production by enterprises in the Free Trade Zone;
5. Machinery, equipment and capital construction materials needed for construction projects in the Free Trade Zone;
6. Machinery, equipment and reasonable quantities of office appliances, fuel and spare parts for maintenance and repair to be used by enterprises and institutions themselves in the Free Trade Zone.
Article 38
Goods transported to places outside Chinese mainland territory from the Free Trade Zone shall be exempted from customs duties unless otherwise stipulated by the State.
Goods exported via the Free Trade Zone shall have tax refunded according to the State regulations on export tax refunds.
Article 39
When goods are transported to non tree trade areas from the Free Trade Zone, customs duties and import related taxes shall be levied thereon according to the State regulations governing goods importation unless otherwise stipulated by the State.
Article 40
Products manufactured by enterprises in the Free Trade Zone to be sold in the Zone or to be transported to places outside Chinese mainland territory shall be exempted from productionrelated taxes. Production related taxes of products shall be levied on products to be sold in nonfree trade areas and customs duties and import related taxes shall be levied in proportion to the amount of imported materials and parts used in the said products.
Article 41
The enterprise income tax on manufacturing enterprises in the Free Trade Zone shall be levied at the rate of 15 per cent. An enterprise with a period of operation of over 10 years shall be exempted from enterprise income tax starting from the first profit making year for 2 consecutive years and shall then be allowed a 50 per cent reduction in enterprise income tax during the third to the fifth years.
Article 42
The enterprise income tax on enterprises of a non manufacturing nature such as trading and storage businesses in the Free Trade Zone shall be levied at the rate of 15 per cent. Any enterprise with a period of operation of over 10 years shall be exempted from enterprise income tax for 1 year starting from the first profit making year and shall then be allowed a 50 per cent reduction in enterprise income tax during the second to the third years.
Article 43
Apart from the provisions in Article 37 to Article 42, the tax regulations of the State and Shanghai Municipality for Pudong New Area shall be applicable to other business operations.
Chapter IX Labour Management
Article 44
Enterprises in the Free Trade Zone may determine, at their own discretion, their organizational pattern and personnel establishment as required by production and operation. They may decide the qualifications, wages standards and distribution forms of their employees according to law.
Enterprises shall practise the labour contract system.
Article 45
Enterprises in the Free Trade Zone shall do a good job in labour safety and hygiene according to the relevant regulations of the State and Shanghai Municipality. Enterprises shall provide social insurance for and protect the legitimate rights and interests of their staff and workers.
Chapter X Legal Liability
Article 46
Should any enterprise, institution or individual in the Free Trade Zone violate the provisions of the present Regulations, it is subject to administrative punishment. The administrative department concerned of the Administrative Committee or the Customs shall give punishment according to law in accordance with its respective functions.
Article 47
Should any staff member of the Administrative Committee or other agencies commit negligence of duties, abuse of power or malpractice for selfish ends, he/she shall be given administrative discipline by his/her work unit or the higher level organization. Those found guilty of a crime shall be prosecuted according to law for the criminal liability.
Article 48
If the party concerned finds unacceptable any specific administrative action of the relevant administrative department of the Administrative Committee or of the Customs, it may apply for administrative reconsideration or may file an administrative suit according to the provisions in the Regulations on Administrative Reconsideration or the Administrative Procedure Law of the People's Republic of China.
Chapter XI Supplementary Provisions
Article 49
The establishment of enterprises in the Free Trade Zone by investors from Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan and Chinese citizens residing abroad and, economic trade activities between the Free Trade Zone and Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan shall be handled by reference to the present Regulations.
Article 50
The Municipal People's Government is responsible for the interpretation of the present Regulations in its implementation.
Article 51
The present Regulations shall become effective on January 1, 1997

Import regulations by Egypt customs

clc

Import:
-200 cigarettes, 25 cigars or 200 g tobacco
-2 litres of alcohol
-Perfume for personal use
-Gifts to the value of EGP500.00

Restricted Imports:

Cash, travelers' checks, cash cards, and gold over the value of EGP500.00 must be declared on arrival.

Drugs, firearms and cotton may not be brought into the country

Export regulations by Egypt customs


Exports Prohibited:
Prohibited items
Narcotics, firearms, cotton, gold and silver purchased locally unless for personal use only and in small quantities; for a full list, contact the Egyptian Commercial Office, 23 South Street, London W1L 2XD (tel: (020) 7499 3002; fax: (020) 7493 8110)

Export of any antiquity or any item older than 100 years without a license is forbidden.

Other Egypt customs information

A yellow fever vaccination certificate is required from travellers over one year of age coming from infected areas (see below). Those arriving in transit from such areas without a certificate will be detained at the airport until their onward flight departs. The following countries and areas are regarded by the Egyptian health authorities as being infected with yellow fever: all countries in mainland Africa south of the Sahara with the exception of Lesotho, Mauritania, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland and Zimbabwe (and including Chad, Mali and Niger); Sudan south of 15N (location certificate issued by a Sudanese official is required in order to be exempt from vaccination certificate); S?o Tom? e Principe. Also Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Panama, Peru, Surinam, Trinidad & Tobago and Venezuela.

Following WHO guidelines issued in 1973, a cholera vaccination certificate is no longer a condition of entry to Egypt and the country is currently not listed as infected. However, sporadic cases of cholera have been reported and precautions could be considered. Up-to-date advice should be sought before deciding whether these precautions should include vaccination as medical opinion is divided over its effectiveness; see the Health appendix for further information.

Vaccination against typhoid and polio is advised.

Limited malaria risk, in the malignant falciparum and benign vivax forms, exists from June to October in the El Faiyoum area. There is no risk in Cairo or Alexandria at any time.

Food drink: Mains water is normally chlorinated and, whilst relatively safe, may cause mild abdominal upsets. Bottled water is available and is advised for the first few weeks of the stay. Milk is unpasteurised and should be boiled. Powdered or tinned milk is available and is advised, but make sure that it is reconstituted with pure water. Avoid dairy products which are likely to have been made from unboiled milk. Only eat well-cooked meat and fish, preferably served hot. Pork, salad and mayonnaise may carry increased risk. Vegetables should be cooked and fruit peeled. Drinking water outside main cities and towns carries a greater risk and should always be sterilised.

Other risks: Precautions against hepatitis A and E and diphtheria should be considered. Immunisation against hepatitis B is sometimes advised. Dengue fever occurs in epidemics. Bilharzia (schistosomiasis) is present in the Nile Delta and the Nile Valley. Avoid swimming and paddling in fresh water; swimming pools which are well chlorinated and maintained are safe. Filariasis may occur in the Nile Delta. There may be a danger of snakes and scorpions in certain areas. Sandstorms are also a risk in some parts.
Rabies is present. For those at high risk, vaccination before arrival should be considered. If you are bitten, seek medical advice without delay. For more information, consult the Health appendix.


Health care: Public hospitals and chemists are open to tourists. Health insurance is strongly advised.

http://www.egyptembassy.net/servicevisa.cfm

Exporting 

For a list of import and export related companies, please click the ''Import/Export Agents for Egypt'' tab located above.

Overview

Exporting should be a natural step for any successful business. It not only abates reliance on your indigenous customers, but also allows for greater market reach and profit. But, as with most things in business, the theory is easier than the practical. Exporting can pose an entirely different set of problems than your business is used to.

Entering a new arena without any contextual knowledge can often lead to expensive errors. Fundamental to success, then, is a comprehensive analysis and research of your intended market. Your polar findings will be either an overwhelming or underwhelming response to a product or service, and it’s probably better to know this before parting with reluctant sums of money.

Naturally, you need to think about people. You need to think about places. You need to contextualise your product or service socioeconomically. Who will be buying your product? Can they find an easier or cheaper alternative? Who’s your competition? What’s the market situation?

And it’s not just the basic relocation issues and protocol you have to consider. Indeed, it''s pragmatics such as your route to market, logistics, regulation, barriers, tariffs and suppliers too. Many will differ vastly to your accustomed practices.

Planning & Preparation

In preparing to export your goods or services, you must not just assess, but scrutinise your potential, and prepare for the worst. This doesn''t mean you have to negate all optimism; just don’t get consumed by it.


These are the market essentialities to examine:

  • Structure of industry
  • Demand for your product or service
  • Your competition and how your company will forge itself alongside it
  • Acclimatisation - alterations your company, product or service may have to adapt to

Next is the process of market entry, which will always seem simpler on paper. Your main considerations will be:

  • A market strategy that, if needed, acknowledges international trade development
  • Financial resources and backing
  • People, and how they can help develop your product for export / a new market
  • Erudition in local requirements: packaging, pricing, labelling, etc
  • Again, erudition, but in the costs and payment procedures of exporting
  • Some of these factors alone may establish an unsuitability for your intended market, so research them thoroughly.

Next, is your product cut-out for export? Think about:

  • The standards and regulations of products in your overseas market
  • The fees involved with altering your product, service and company for a foreign market

UKTI

UK Trade & Investment (UKTI) is the Government organisation that helps companies in the UK succeed in the global economy. Offering services to UK based firms wanting to gain access to global markets through export and foreign expansion, UKTI offer a range of services tailored to the needs of individual businesses, helping them to maximise their international success.

UKTI Services

Expert Trade Advice: The UKTI International Trade Team has 40 local offices around the UK through which they are able to meet business owners and offer advice and support on international trade and growing a business. Find out more.

The Passport to Export Programme: The Passport to Export programme was devised to offer new and inexperienced exporters support and guidance in the following ways (find out more):

  • Free Action Planning
  • Support in Visiting Potential Markets
  • Mentoring from a Local Expert Professional
  • Customised and Subsidised Training
  • Ongoing Support

Gateway to Global Growth: A free service to experienced exporters which offers a strategic review, planning and support to help grow your company''s business overseas. Solutions could be complex requiring both UK Trade & Investment services and those offered by other public or private sector organisations. It could involve the acquisition of specialist information and skills or guidance on how to achieve a specific objective. It may even involve sharing your experience and problems with other experienced exporters.

Business Opportunities: With a team of expert advisors located overseas within British Embassies, High Commissions and Consulates, UKTI publish overseas business opportunities open to British companies. To benefit from these Business Opportunities you must register your UK-based business on the website.

Access to UKTI Market Expertise: UKTI are able to provide help with the initial approach into a new market, offering help through research and advice through 2 principle services:

Overseas Market Introduction Services (OMIS): This service will put a business in direct touch with local UKTI staff in their overseas offices who are able to provide support and access to country and sector-specific advice.

Export Marketing Research Scheme (ERMS): Administered on behalf of UKTI by the British Chamber of Commerce, companies may be eligible for a grant for market research projects to obtain commercial intelligence.

Help with Visiting an Overseas Market: UKTI provide grant support for eligible Small & Medium Sized Enterprises to attend trade shows overseas and help arrange groups of UK companies to attend tradeshows and missions. This is implemented through their Tradeshow Access Programme, allowing entrepreneurs to test market, attract customers, appoint agents and distributors, and develop international business.

Selling & Distribution

To improve the chances of overseas success, you need to consider a few key issues. Sales presence, for instance, should be a top priority. Will you sell directly? Will you trade over the internet? Perhaps trade shows are more suitable? Could you benefit from a local partner who knows the market? Here are a few fundamental choices:

  • Get yourself a distributor who can sell on a local or national level
  • Sales agents can either sell a product for you, or alternatively acquaint you with potential clients or customers
  • Joint ventures with local companies have gained in popularity, primarily because of their knowledge and established presence in the market. It is often a pricey option, however
  • Of course, you can also set up your own office, ensuring maximum control on all operations. This is obviously the most expensive of all your options

A few things to remember. Firstly, when drawing up any contracts with agents or distributors, it is imperative to unequivocally define obligations such as delivery and payment

Next, your intellectual property (IP) may be jeopardised if it is not declared in each foreign country. This can often be a laborious process, so be prepared. Remember that patents are generally recognised only in their country of origin.

Marketing

Oh, the minefield of overseas marketing. It’s no point squeezing a product or service into a new market with the shoehorn of indigenous merit. Your product or service must adapt, refine, alter, acclimatise, tailor and fashion itself to a market, not rely on some fatalistic hope of simply “fitting in.” Products are more pliable than people.

As aforementioned, the necessity to contextualise your product or service socioeconomically can’t be overstated. It will be a paradoxical balance of market sensitivity and exploitation. Does your product require a drastic change to its image? Can it be changed to flatter a national idiom?

Legal Obligations

Needless to say, a keen attention to laws, legislation and regulation is paramount. VAT rules should be considered early; some products may not qualify for the HM Revenue & Customs zero-rate policy.

Controls & Licenses

You’ll need to check if any of your products require an export license. Products such as chemicals and firearms, for instance, usually do.

Comprehension of the Law

Of course, upon entering a foreign country, a product or service is subject to, and must abide, national laws.

Developing Your International Trade Potential

This UK Trade & Investment (UKTI) programme was established to help novice entrepreneurs and exporters who are considering selling overseas. With its first-class knowledge of overseas business, it helps entrepreneurs through training, planning and continuing support.

Here are some of the features of the programme:

  • Free assessment of your preparedness for exporting and help devising an entry plan
  • Training in all the essentialities of overseas trading
  • Support and help with market research, and the possibility of financial assistance if needed
  • Expert advice and help with overcoming protocol, such as language and cultural barriers
  • Advice from specialist international trade advisors
  • Continuing support for overseas development and trading

You can join the Developing Your International Trade Potential Programme if you meet the following requirements:

  • Less than 250 employees
  • Less than 50 million Euro turnover
  • Your company makes 25% or less of turnover from exports
  • You are a new, novice or passive exporter

Are You Ready To Export?

Entering into the export market through an existing business may seem like an obvious way to increase your current revenue. In many cases, it is a viable means of expanding a business, and generating greater income. However, it is important to consider the logistics, timing and practicalities before jumping into the unknown.

Exporting can extend your market, boost your turnover and prevent you having too great a dependence on your UK-based customers. But it isn''t always an easy option. Starting to export poses a whole new set of challenges, from identifying promising markets and customers to ensuring that you can fulfil your export contracts. Developing new export markets takes time and money.

Exporting isn''t simply an add-on to your existing business. It should be part of an overall strategy to develop the business. Before you start exporting, it''s worth making sure you''ve developed a complete export plan looking at all the costs and risks involved. A well planned extension overseas can bring financial and reputational success, but a rushed job may just cause more damage than it is worth.

Planning is key, so consider the following before making any decisions:

  • Exporting presents all the normal challenges of marketing in the UK - it''s up to you to find customers and convince them to buy from you. Understanding the market and its requirements is very important. Don’t assume that because you know the domestic market, you automatically know foreign ones.
  • Exporting is usually a way of growing a successful business, rather than an easy way out for one that''s in trouble. If you''re struggling with limited finances or overworked employees, you may not have the resources to take on the extra work.
  • As an international business, you will need to cope with extra logistical problems, contractual issues and paperwork. You''ll probably want a contract drawn up using internationally recognised terms and conditions and standard commercial practices to make it clear what your responsibilities are.
  • There''s also a range of paperwork for sorting out transport, customs clearance and payments. These may take more time and effort than you expect, and must be dealt with in meticulous detail.
  • You need to comply with regulations in both the UK and overseas. For example, some goods that are allowed in the UK might not satisfy another country''s standards.
  • Exporting demands additional resources, both in terms of financing and skilled personnel. Be prepared for your expenditure on staff and expert advice and services to increase significantly before you start to see the benefits
  • With the additional costs, such as international transport, you may find you simply can''t compete with local suppliers. If the market only offers low margins, or you haven''t got the resources you need, you may decide that exporting isn''t for you. Make sure that you plan carefully and know that you could present a competitive product or service overseas.

Equally, if you''ve got a good product to offer and a well-run business, the chances are there will be opportunities for you out there in the export market. If the rewards you expect justify the investment and the risks, you should commit to your export plan and make it happen.

The Plan

Assess your skills and resources

To start exporting successfully, you should take a systematic approach and decide what your export strategy is. You need to spend time and money planning, researching market opportunities and building relationships. You may also need to invest in modifying your product and service to suit overseas customers.

Buy in help 

Once you''ve planned your exporting activities, you also need to devote extra resources to handling your exporting business. Marketing to overseas customers tends to be more demanding than selling within the UK. Exporting also needs special skills - such as organising international transport and handling customs clearance.

Many businesses find that the best way to get started is to buy in the services they need, and build in-house skills and resources later. For example, you might use a local agent to sell, and a freight forwarder to handle deliveries.

Source your capital

Exporting can also be financially demanding. Customers often want credit from the time they receive the goods. For a long distance shipment, this could be weeks after you produced and shipped the goods, so you get paid later than you would by a customer in the UK. At the same time, you may have to meet extra costs like transport and insurance.

The more successful you are, the greater the demands placed on your business will be. It''s worth planning ahead to be sure you have the capacity to handle the extra production, selling and after-sales support.

Organise your paperwork

When trading internationally the right paperwork is crucial. Missing or inaccurate documents can increase risks, lead to delays and extra costs, or even prevent a deal being completed.

Whether you are importing or exporting, you need to understand what paperwork is required. Even if you use a freight forwarder or an agent, it''s still up to you to make sure the right documentation is available. See our basic guide below for pointers to get you started.

Documentation Guide

This guide explains the key documentation you need to use. It outlines what should be in your contracts and what paperwork you need for customs, transport and payment.

Key documentation for international trade

  • There should be a clear written contract between buyer and seller, including details of exactly where goods will be delivered.
  • Specific documents may be needed to get the goods through customs and to work out the right duty and tax charges. Requirements of both exporting and importing countries should be addressed.
  • Documentation is needed to cover the transport of the goods and insurance during the journey.
  • The right paperwork can be an important part of the payment mechanism. It''s important to co-operate with your counterpart on getting the paperwork right.

NB: If you''re shipping goods to a customer overseas, they should tell you what paperwork they require at their end. If you are dealing with a non-English speaking country, it can be a good idea to provide one set of commercial documents in the local language.

International trade contracts and Incoterms

Different countries have different business cultures and even languages. It''s a good idea to make sure you have a clear written contract to minimise the risk of misunderstandings.

To avoid confusion, internationally agreed Incoterms should be used to spell out exactly what delivery terms are being agreed, such as:

  • where the goods will be delivered
  • who arranges transport
  • who is responsible for insuring the goods, and who pays for insurance
  • who handles customs procedures, and who pays any duties and taxes

As well as including delivery details, the contract should cover payment. This should include what currency payment will be made in, how much will be paid, when payment is due and what payment method will be used.

Export documentation

You may need an export licence to export goods. For example, there are controls on exports of chemicals and military technology. Licence requirements may also depend on which country you are exporting to.

Export declarations

If you are selling goods within the EU, most goods are in free circulation and can be easily moved from the UK to other countries without customs controls or charges.

If you are selling to customers outside the EU, you need to declare your exports to HM Revenue & Customs (HMRC). This is generally done electronically, using the New Export System (NES). The declaration includes details of the classification of the goods being exported and which country they are going to.

Alternatively, an authorised agent or freight forwarder can handle the customs declaration for you.

Export VAT

For VAT purposes, exports are generally zero-rated, but you should keep copies of your VAT invoices and proof of export. This helps you prove that the goods left the country and that you do not have to pay any output VAT on them.

If your sales to EU countries exceed £260,000 - you must also complete the Intrastat supplementary declaration.

Exports to countries outside the EU do not count towards the Intrastat threshold and do not need to be included.

Overseas imports

You should check what documentation is required for import into your customer''s country. Typically, you need a commercial invoice and shipping documents such as an Air Waybill. Other requirements can include a certificate of origin.

Once you have considered the logistics of entering the export market – either with an existing business or a new venture – you can start planning. Just remember to be meticulous, and plan everything to the last detail, follow our pointers, and you should enjoy a lucrative business opportunity!

Alexandria Port /Egypt

A prime location in the center of the state, close to I-49 and Alexandria International Airport, gives the Port of Alexandria many advantages for commercial and industrial commerce.

Nearly 500,000 tons of cargo crossed the docks at the port during 2005, and that trend is expected to continue.

The port includes about 125 acres containing a public terminal, a 60,000 square-foot warehouse, petroleum dock, steel bulk-head dock, general cargo dock with rail access and a 40-ton bridge crane equipped with a clamshell bucket, grappler and hopper-loader.

The Port of Alexandria has had the distinction of being the largest receiver and shipper of military equipment on inland waterways in the continental United States. the port's proximity to Fort Polk's Joint Readiness Training Center in Leesville has attracted heavy use by the U.S. Army and other military units, which use the river to move equipment in and out for training exercises at the nearby military post. Additionally, the Louisiana National Guard has regularly used the Port of Alexandria to ship barge-loads of equipment to such distant locales as Belize and Honduras for construction missions. Industrial use of the port primarily includes bulk fertilizer blending, storage and distribution, aggregate transport for construction projects and creosote handling. With its existing amenities, as well as future planned expansion and enhancements to its infrastructure, the complex is an attractive site for business relocations and new enterprises as the Port is in Foreign Trade Zone # 261 authorized but not activated.

Import regulations by Germany customs


Import:

Tobacco products
200 cigarettes or
100 cigarillos or
50 cigars or
Alcohol:
1 liter of spirits over 22 % vol. or
2 liters of fortified wine or sparkling wine
2 liters of still wine

Perfume:
50 Grams

Eau de toilette:
250 ml

Other goods: Up to a value of 175 Euro

Restricted Imports:

Products of animal origin:
Apart from some exceptions the Community rules do not allow the importation of meat, meat products, milk and milk products by travellers.

Animal or plants:
Travellers must be aware that certain wildlife animals or plants and parts thereof are protected by the Convention of Washington (CITES). The importation of these specimens is strongly restricted following the Community rules implementing the CITES-Convention.

Pets:
Pet owners have to respect the Community rules on movements of pet animals.

Prohibitions and restrictions in the following areas are covered by national legislation
-Drugs
-Medicines
-Weapons
-Explosive Material
-Pornographic Materials
If you need more information, please contact the competent authorities of your country of destination.

Currency Controls In/Out:
Travellers entering or leaving the Community and carrying any sum equal to or exceeding
�10,000 (or its equivalent in other currencies or easily convertible assets such as cheques drawn on a third party) to make a declaration to the customs authorities.

Export regulations by Germany customs


Currency Controls In/Out:
Travellers entering or leaving the Community and carrying any sum equal to or exceeding ?10,000 (or its equivalent in other currencies or easily convertible assets such as cheques drawn on a third party) to make a declaration to the customs authorities.

Exports:
Travellers holding a valid ticket for a destination outside the EU (and certain areas within the EU, such as the Canary Islands ) can buy goods free of duty and tax in so-called "tax-free shops" in airports and ports. There are no limits as to the quantity or value of the goods that can be purchased duty and tax free. Travellers should however bear in mind that the importation of these goods in the country of destination will be subject to duty and tax allowances, similar to those applying to travellers that enter the EU from a non Member State.

Other Germany customs information

Health care: There is a reciprocal health agreement with the UK. On presentation of the form E111 (obtainable from post offices in the UK), UK citizens are entitled to free medical and dental treatment. Prescribed medicines may, in some cases, have to be paid for. The cost of treatment in public hospitals (on referral from a doctor, unless in emergencies) is covered by public health authorities, except for a small daily charge from the start of hospital treatment up to a maximum of 14 days. Private insurance is recommended for specialist medical treatment outside the German National Health Service, which can be very expensive. Surgery hours are generally 1000-1200 and 1600-1800 (not Wednesday afternoon, Saturday or Sunday). The emergency telephone number is 112; additionally, there is an emergency call-out service out of surgery hours (1800-0700). Chemists are open Mon-Fri 0900-1800, Sat 0900-1200. All chemists give alternative addresses of services available outside the normal opening hours. There are 350 officially recognised medical spas and watering places with modern equipment providing therapeutic treatment and recreational facilities for visitors seeking rest and relaxation. A list of the spas and health resorts and various treatments can be ordered from the German National Tourist Office, or directly from Deutscher Heilbderverband e.V. (German Spas Association), Schumannstrasse 111, 53113 Bonn (tel: (228) 201 200; fax: (228) 201 2041; e-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it ; website: www.deutscher-heilbaederverband.de).

Import Regulation and Customs, Tax and Duties in Germany

When exporting to Germany, various aspects are to be considered: Customs and taxes, quality and environmental standards, trademark and competition rules are just a few of them. It is within the responsibility of the importer to clear the items for circulation in Germany, exporters need to be informed on prerequisites of penetrating the German market, if only for pricing purposes. When it comes to customs duties for goods which are exported to Germany, their origin is of utmost importance.

Free circulation of goods in the Single European Market

Goods sold to Germany from a member state of the European Community are not subject to customs duties. They are free to circulate within the Single European Market, in which there is freedom of movements for goods and capital. The free circulation of goods in the Single European Market means that they can be imported without any customs clearance within the member states. This circulation of goods is inter-community supply and acquisition.

Non-EU countries

For goods originating from outside the Common Market, importing to Germany means crossing a EU border. Thus, the European Customs Tariff applies, since customs tariffs have been harmonized within the Union. Entering into the European Union, goods must be declared for customs clearance. Therefore, importers must address to the customs authority, usually by handing over shipping documents. In general, customs duties in Europe are calculated ad-valorem, meaning that they are derived from the value of the imported goods. This value - the customs value - is equivalent to the sales price; it is adjusted by adding the costs of transport, insurance, loading, and handling to the port of entry into the European Union in case they are not included in the sales prices (cif-price), which is to be proven by sales documents. Vice versa, expenses for the transportation within the European Union can be deducted if they have been included in the sales price beforehand, which must be documented, too.

European Customs Tariff


The European Customs Tariff (TARIC, Tariff intأ©grأ© des Communautأ©s europأ©ennes) applies for goods originating from outside the Single European Market, since customs tariffs have been harmonized within the Union. Goods must be declared for customs clearance, when they are brought to the European Union. Therefore, importers must address the customs authority, usually by handing over shipping documents.
In general, customs duties in Europe are calculated ad-valorem, meaning that they are derived from the value of the imported goods. This value - the customs value - is equivalent to the sales price; it is adjusted by adding the costs of transport, insurance and loading in case they are not included in the sales prices (cif-price), which is to be proven by sales documents.
Vice versa, costs of transportation within the Single European Market can be deducted, if they have been included in the sales price beforehand, which must be certificated, too.

Transit regulations

A transit procedure facilitates the customs-free transfer of imported goods to an interior customs post. Legally, the transit procedure is regulated by the Community transit procedure within the EU or the common transit procedure for the trade of goods between EU and EFTA countries. Other international procedures are also permitted (e.g. Carnet TIR for traffic).
Items which are only temporarily brought into the European Union and are generally exempted from customs duties intended to be re-exported without modification, e.g. exhibits for trade-fairs. Items are transferred to this procedure of temporary use, if their respective customs exemption or the application of a reduced customs rate depends on the non-Community goods being used under the supervision of the customs office.

General preference system

The European Customs Tariff grants tariff exemptions or preferential treatments, depending on the imported item and its origin. Customs preferences result either as regional preferences from special agreements or are granted unilaterally to developing countries by the European Union in the framework of the General Preference System (GPS).
The GPS intends to support the development of certain areas and regions or to help easing a strong demand within the European Market. Tariffs may be suspended temporarily or for quotas of a certain amount.

Customs preferences

Disregarding the intended use of the merchandise, the European Customs Tariff grants tariff exemptions or preferential treatments, depending on the imported item and its origin. Customs preferences result either as regional preferences from special agreements or are granted unilaterally to developing countries by the European Union in the framework of the General Preference System (GPS). There is a vast catalogue of agreements on preferential treatment. These agreements are either meant to support the development of certain areas and regions or to help easing a strong demand within the European Market. In some cases, tariffs may be suspended temporarily or for quotas of a certain amount.

Tax and duties

All industrial imports are subject to an "Import sales tax" of 19%. It is equivalent to the value-added tax (VAT) which is levied on all domestically produced items, thus placing the same tax burden on imported and domestic products. The import turnover tax is charged on the duty paid value of the import article plus a customs duty. A discounted tax of 7% is levied on food products, books, newspapers, pieces of art etc.
Within the Single European Market, a community-wide system of VAT collection is in place. National VAT is levied on the product at the place of production. Buyers can deduct it as input tax in their home country, provided that the supplier has got a valid value added tax identification number. Customs duties as well as taxes are collected by the German customs authorities.

Export Requirements for Germany

Products Harmonized by the European Union

Fresh/frozen red meat and poultry, meat and poultry products, game meat, products for pet food manufacture and pharmaceutical processing, ships' stores, and certain other products intended for export to countries which are members of the European Union must follow the "European Union Requirements" found elsewhere in the FSIS Export Library. The following countries are members of the European Union: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France,
Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovak Republic, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom.

Products Not Harmonized by the European Union

A. Transhipments of Meat/Poultry Products.  See the European Union Requirements, Section XVII - Documentation - Required Certificates, Transit Certificates.

B. U.S. military requirements. Obtain FSIS Form 9060-5 and the appropriate EU transit certificates. See the European Union Requirements, Section XVII - Documentation - Required Certificates, Transit Certificates.

C. ANUGA 2009 Food Show*

1. Meat and poultry and meat and poultry products. Obtain FSIS Form 9060-5 and FSIS letterhead certificate entitled "Health Certificate for the Export of Animal Products for ANUGA 2009 in Cologne, Germany". The letterhead certificate must be stamped with the FSIS rubber export stamp indicating the certificate number. The signature on the certificate and the export stamp must be in a color other than black.*

To make the statement on the letterhead certificate regarding BSE risk materials, the product must not contain the following SRMs as defined by the EU:

(i) the skull excluding the mandible and including the brain and eyes, and the spinal cord of animals aged over 12 months;

(ii) the vertebral column excluding the vertebrae of the tail, the spinous and transverse processes of the cervical, thoracic and lumbar vertebrae and the median sacral crest and wings of the sacrum, but including the dorsal root ganglia of animals aged over 30 months; and

(iii) the tonsils, the intestines from the duodenum to the rectum and the mesentery of animals of all ages.

To make the statement on the letterhead certificate regarding trichinae, the pork/horse meat must have been tested negative for trichinae or have received cold treatment according to 9 CFR 318.10.

2. Egg Products. Obtain FSIS Form PY-200 and FSIS letterhead certificate entitled "Veterinary Certificate for transit/storage of specified pathogen-free eggs, meat, minced meat and mechanically separated meat of poultry, ratites and wild game-bird, eggs and egg products". This certificate is also available in German. The letterhead certificate must be stamped with the FSIS rubber export stamp indicating the certificate number. The signature on the certificate and the export stamp must be in a color other than black.

3.

Port of Hamburg

INTRODUCTION:
Port of Hamburg, Hamburg is the largest seaport in Germany and is identified as the Germany’s Gateway to World. It is situated off the North Sea on the river Elbe in Hamburg.

Covering an area of 73.99 square kilometer with a land mass of 34.12 square kilometer, it is considered as the ninth busiest port in the world according to the volume of the business handled here.

Port of Hamburg was set up by Frederick I in 1189 for its strategic location. The port of Hamburg had been a hub of all trading activities in Germany for centuries. It has helped in the evolution of a great economic zone for the bourgeoisie. From 1871, after the unification of Germany it has been the chief port for transatlantic passengers and freight carriage. The port suffered greatly during the post Second World War. However the region has witnessed a rapid growth in business after the reunification of Germany.
The branches of Elbe make Port of Hamburg an ideal location with warehouses and transportation facilities. A wide expanse of Free Port zone encourages toll- free shipping thereby minimizing the cost factor.

From the Landungsbrucken jetties, start the harbor tour that leads one to the famous fish market and the auction hall that is held on Sunday mornings. A stroll along the harbor will be a place for great fish treats at the stalls in the museum ships Cap San Diego and Rickmer Rickmers.

The government planned the deepening of the mouth of Elbe for the ships to enter Port of Hamburg without any difficulty. However, the plan was put off citing ecological reasons after the change of government in 2001. Plan has been set afloat to set up a new district to the north of the port.

Import regulations by France customs

Import:

Tobacco products
200 cigarettes or
100 cigarillos or
50 cigars or
250 grams of tobacco

Alcohol:
1 liter of spirits over 22 % vol. or
2 liters of fortified wine or sparkling wine
2 liters of still wine

Perfume:
50 Grams

Eau de toilette:
250 ml

Other goods: Up to a value of 175 Euro

Restricted Imports:

Products of animal origin:
Apart from some exceptions the Community rules do not allow the importation of meat, meat products, milk and milk products by travellers.

Animal or plants:
Travellers must be aware that certain wildlife animals or plants and parts thereof are protected by the Convention of Washington (CITES). The importation of these specimens is strongly restricted following the Community rules implementing the CITES-Convention.

Pets:
Pet owners have to respect the Community rules on movements of pet animals.

Prohibitions and restrictions in the following areas are covered by national legislation
-Drugs
-Medicines
-Weapons
-Explosive Material
-Pornographic Materials

If you need more information, please contact the competent authorities of your country of destination.

Currency Controls In/Out:
Travellers entering or leaving the Community and carrying any sum equal to or exceeding �10,000

(or its equivalent in other currencies or easily convertible assets such as cheques drawn on a third party) to make a declaration to the customs authorities.

Export regulations by France customs

Currency Controls In/Out:
Travellers entering or leaving the Community and carrying any sum equal to or exceeding ?10,000 (or its equivalent in other currencies or easily convertible assets such as cheques drawn on a third party) to make a declaration to the customs authorities.


Exports:

Travellers holding a valid ticket for a destination outside the EU (and certain areas within the EU, such as the Canary Islands ) can buy goods free of duty and tax in so-called "tax-free shops" in airports and ports. There are no limits as to the quantity or value of the goods that can be purchased duty and tax free. Travellers should however bear in mind that the importation of these goods in the country of destination will be subject to duty and tax allowances, similar to those applying to travellers that enter the EU from a non Member State.

Other France customs information


Information on vaccinations and other health precautions, such as safe food and water precautions and insect bite protection, may be obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention?s hotline for international travelers at 1-877-FYI-TRIP (1-877-394-8747) or via the CDC?s internet site at http://www.cdc.gov/travel. For information about outbreaks of infectious diseases abroad consult the World Health Organization?s (WHO) website at http://www.who.int/en. Further health information for travelers is available at http://www.who.int/ith.

MEDICAL INSURANCE: The Department of State strongly urges Americans to consult with their medical insurance company prior to traveling abroad to confirm whether their policy applies overseas and if it will cover emergency expenses such as a medical evacuation.

Marseill port of france

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Marseille Overview
Marseille, the gateway to Provence, is the second largest city and largest port in France, and an ethnic melting pot that befits its proximity to Africa. But the city traces its history further east: In 6th century B.C., wandering Greeks founded "Massalia" as a trading port; 2,000 years ago, after the Greeks joined the Romans to expand territories, a civil war broke out between Caesar and Pompey, and the people of Marseille were forced to side with the latter (who was ultimately defeated). French colonies began to settle in the coastal city by the 19th century.

Today, the Vieux Port -- the city's old harbor -- is still Marseille's main draw, dotted with boats of all shapes and sizes, from humble fishing boats to medium-size yachts. While much of the city is urban sprawl of little charm, the Vieux Port is the center of a compact area of galleries, museums and churches. Bustling with visitors and locals alike, the old harbor is also the epicenter for dining in the city, offering everything from pizza and Coca-Cola to the finest fresh seafood. Bouillabaisse, a fish stew, is a national treasure in France and it originated in Marseille, where it is a ubiquitous menu item.

Many of the buildings around the port were damaged or destroyed during World War II, but have been rebuilt to mimic the pre-war charm of the area. (Interestingly, there is no museum or other permanent exhibition in the city about the war and Marseille's role in it).
 

Import regulations by Canada customs


Free to Import:

(ONLY ONE OF THE FOLLOWING)
-1.5 litres (53 imperial ounces) of wine;
-1.14 litres (40 ounces) of liquor;
-a total of 1.14 litres (40 ounces) of wine and liquor; or
-24 x 355 millilitre (12 ounces) cans or bottles (maximum of 8.5 litres) of beer or ale.

You can bring in more than the free allowance of alcohol except in Nunavut and the Northwest Territories. However, the quantities must be within the limit set by the province or territory where you will enter Canada. If the value of the goods is more than the free allowance, you will have to pay both customs and provincial or territorial assessments. For more information, check with the appropriate provincial or territorial liquor control authority before coming to Canada.

Free to Import: (Tobacco)

-200 cigarettes;
-50 cigars or cigarillos;
-200 grams (7 ounces) of manufactured tobacco; and
-200 tobacco sticks.

You may bring in additional quantities but you will have to pay full duty and taxes on the excess amount. If you plan a side trip abroad during your visit, you must be out of Canada for at least 48 hours to be eligible to claim these entitlements again.


Importing Currency:

If you are importing monetary instruments equal to or greater than CAN$10,000 (or its equivalent in a foreign currency), whether in cash or other monetary instruments, you must report it to the CBSA before you enter Canada. For more information, ask for a copy of the publication called
Crossing the Border with $10,000 or More? or select "Publications and forms" at www.cbsa.gc.ca.
Restricted Imports:

Firearms and Weapons:
-you must be at least 18 years of age;
-you can import non-restricted and restricted firearms, provided you meet all requirements; and
-you cannot import prohibited firearms, weapons or devices, including silencers, replica firearms, switchblades and other weapons.
For more information about applying for a Canadian firearms licence or Form CAFC 679, contact:
Canada Firearms Centre Ottawa ON K1A 1M6
Telephone: 1-800-731-4000 (toll-free in Canada and the United States)
506-624-5380 (from all other countries)
Facsimile: 613-957-7325
E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it
Web site: www.cfc.gc.ca
Other Restricted Items:
Endangered Species
Radio transmitting equipment:
If you are not a United States resident, you will need permission from Industry Canada to use this equipment. For more information, contact Industry Canada by e-mail at This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it
Food Products:
For information on CFIA import requirements, refer to the Automated Import Reference System (AIRS) on the CFIA Web site at www.inspection.gc.ca or call a CFIA Import Service Centre toll-
free at the following numbers:

Eastern Canada 1-877-493-0468
Central Canada 1-800-835-4486
Western Canada 1-888-732-6222
Animals:

You may import pet dogs and cats younger than three months old from the United States without submitting any documentation. However, a CFIA veterinarian must examine them if they appear unhealthy. If you own an assistance dog that is certified as a guide, hearing or other service dog, the animal is not subject to any restrictions as long as it accompanies you to Canada.

If you own cats older than three months, dogs older than eight months and pet dogs between three and eight months, you may import them from the United States as long as they accompany you when you enter Canada. You will also have to submit a certificate signed and dated by a veterinarian for each pet. The certificate must show that the animal is currently vaccinated against rabies and include the name of the vaccine used and its expiry date. In addition, it has to identify the animal by breed, age, sex, colouring and any distinguishing marks. We cannot accept an animal tag in place of a certificate. If you import pet dogs between three and eight months that do not accompany you, you may require additional permits and certifications
Gifts

You can import gifts for friends in Canada duty- and tax-free, as long as each gift is valued at CAN$60 or less. If the gift is worth more than CAN$60, you will have to pay duty and taxes on the excess amount. You cannot claim alcoholic beverages, tobacco products or business-related material as gifts.

Export regulations by Canada customs

Exporting Currency:

If you are exporting monetary instruments equal to or greater than CAN$10,000 (or its equivalent in a foreign currency), whether in cash or other monetary instruments, you must report it to the CBSA before you leave Canada. For more information, ask for a copy of the publication called Crossing the Border with $10,000 or More? or select "Publications and forms" at www.cbsa.gc.ca.

Tax Refunds upon Export:

When you leave, you may be eligible for a tax refund on the goods you bought in Canada if you export them within 60 days. For more information, ask for a copy of the publication called Tax Refund for Visitors to Canada from the Canada Revenue Agency or call 1-800-66VISIT
(1-800-668-4748).

Other Canada customs information

Minimum ages for the importation of alcoholic beverages as prescribed by provincial or territorial authority, are 18 years for Alberta, Manitoba and Quebec, and 19 years for Yukon, Northwest Territories, Nunavut, British Columbia, Saskatchewan, Ontario, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island and Newfoundland and Labrador

CBSA programs for frequent travellers

Our CANPASS and NEXUS programs streamline the border clearance process for low-risk, pre-approved frequent travellers. If you wish to participate in either of these programs, you must fill out an application form, undergo a security check and qualify for certain admissibility criteria. For information and application forms, visit www.cbsa.gc.ca/canpass or www.cbsa.gc.ca/nexus or call the BIS at the numbers listed in the section called "Additional information."

Importing and Exporting in vancouver

Port of Vancouver in canada

The Port of Vancouver was the name of the largest port in Canada, the largest in the Pacific Northwest, and the largest port on the West Coast of North America by metric tons of total cargo, with 76.5 million metric tons.[1] The port amalgamated with the Fraser River Port Authority and the North Fraser Port Authority in 2008 to form Port Metro Vancouver.

In terms of container traffic measured in twenty-foot equivalent units (TEU), the port ranked in 2006 as the largest port in Canada, the largest in the Pacific Northwest, the fourth-largest port on the West Coast of North America, and fifth-largest in North America overall.[2]

The Port of Vancouver trades $43 billion in goods with more than 90 trading economies annually. The Vancouver Fraser Port Authority is the corporation responsible for management of the port, which, in addition to the city of Vancouver, includes all of Burrard Inlet and Roberts Bank Superport in Delta.

The Port of Vancouver is also the world hub for Canadian shipping company, Asia Pacific Marine Container Lines.

The port has 25 major marine terminals: three container, seventeen bulk cargo and five break bulk cargo.

The Centerm container and break bulk terminals are leased by P&O Ports, which was acquired by Dubai Ports World in 2005.

U.A.E. Import and export

What you need to know before shipping to the United Arab Emirates.

Any goods being imported through either land, sea or air customs zones shall be subject to the following specific general customs procedures:

  • Submit a detailed customs declaration as per the approved form including all information about the goods and accompanied with all documents required.
  • Declaration of goods and cash for passengers.
  • Register customs declaration with the competent customs officer.
  • Transfer goods to examination, checking and inspection.
  • Evaluate goods for the purposes of payment of customs duties.
  • Release of goods.

Import

Import of goods from outside the country into local market.

Transactional processing: 

  • Receive and check the documents required for customs declaration processing.
  • Implement customs tariff and regulations.
  • Collect customs duties and registration fees.
  • Deliver client's own copies and retain customs copy.

Documents required for transactional processing: 

  • Import goods declaration form.
  • Delivery order from a shipping agent addressed to a licensed company by licensing agencies in UAE.
  • Original bill of lading (for seaports).
  • Import permit from the competent agencies in the event of importing restricted goods.
  • Original invoice from the exporter addressed to a licensed importer in the country detailing total quantity, goods description and total value for each item.
  • Original certificate of origin approved by the chamber of commerce at the country of origin detailing the origin of goods.
  • Detailed packing list as per weight, method of packing and HS code for each individual article contained in the shipment.
  • A form or letter of exemption from customs duties in case the exemption requirements are fulfilled including - Local Purchase Order (LPO).
  • Copy of the trade license of buyer and seller.
Import of goods from outside the country for re-export

Transactional processing: 

  • Receive and check the documents required for customs declaration processing.
  • Write all information required on the banking guarantee if payment under banking guarantee.
  • Collect registration fees and deposit amount if in cash.
  • Deliver client's own copies and retain customs copy and the banking guarantee copy.

Documents required for transactional processing: 

  • Import goods declaration form.
  • Delivery order from a shipping agent addressed to a licensed company by licensing agencies in UAE.
  • Original bill of lading (for seaports).
  • Import permit from the competent agencies in the event of importing restricted goods.
  • Original invoice from the exporter addressed to a licensed importer in the country detailing total quantity, goods description and total value for each item.
  • Original certificate of origin approved by the chamber of commerce at the country of origin detailing the origin of goods.
  • Detailed packing list as per weight, method of packing and HS code for each individual article contained in the shipment.
  • Copy of the trade license of buyer and seller.

Temporary Admission 

The entry of goods through customs zones into the country on temporary basis for the purposes of taking part in an exhibition or repairs and maintenance of equipment and machineries. A deposit equivalent to customs tariff on total value of goods shall be collected against such type of transactions.

Transactional processing: 

  • Receive and check the documents required for customs declaration processing.
  • Write all information required on the banking guarantee if payment under banking guarantee.
  • Collect registration fees and deposit amount whether in cash, by cheque or banking guarantee.
  • Deliver client's own copies and retain customs copy and the banking guarantee copy.

Documents required for transactional processing: 

  • Import goods declaration form.
  • Delivery order from a shipping agent addressed to a licensed company by licensing agencies in UAE.
  • Original bill of lading (for seaports).
  • Import permit from the competent agencies in the event of importing restricted goods.
  • A letter from the licensed company showing the purpose of exit, period, total quantity, description and detailed value of each item showing their serial numbers.
  • Original invoice from the exporter addressed to a licensed importer in the country detailing total quantity, goods description and total value for each item.
  • Original certificate of origin approved by the chamber of commerce at the country of origin detailing the origin of goods.
  • Detailed packing list as per weight, method of packing and HS code for each individual article contained in the shipment.
  • Copy of the trade license issued in UAE.

WE ARE A TRUSTED LEADER IN INTERNATIONAL AND DOMESTIC CARGO SHIPPING. 

Since 1977 our safety records for cargo shipment delivery have exceeded all industry standards and have made us one of the most dependable shipping companies in the industry. Thus, whether you are shipping cars, vehicles, full households, individual furniture, antiques, or other goods, you will comfortable knowing that Schumacher Cargo Logistics will take care of all aspects of your relocation needs.

Import and export in UAE

Exporting

For a list of import and export related companies, please click the ''Import/Export Agents for Denmark'' tab located above.

Overview

Exporting should be a natural step for any successful business. It not only abates reliance on your indigenous customers, but also allows for greater market reach and profit. But, as with most things in business, the theory is easier than the practical. Exporting can pose an entirely different set of problems than your business is used to.

Entering a new arena without any contextual knowledge can often lead to expensive errors. Fundamental to success, then, is a comprehensive analysis and research of your intended market. Your polar findings will be either an overwhelming or underwhelming response to a product or service, and it’s probably better to know this before parting with reluctant sums of money.

Naturally, you need to think about people. You need to think about places. You need to contextualise your product or service socioeconomically. Who will be buying your product? Can they find an easier or cheaper alternative? Who’s your competition? What’s the market situation?

And it’s not just the basic relocation issues and protocol you have to consider. Indeed, it''s pragmatics such as your route to market, logistics, regulation, barriers, tariffs and suppliers too. Many will differ vastly to your accustomed practices.

Planning & Preparation

In preparing to export your goods or services, you must not just assess, but scrutinise your potential, and prepare for the worst. This doesn''t mean you have to negate all optimism; just don’t get consumed by it.

These are the market essentialities to examine:

  • Structure of industry
  • Demand for your product or service
  • Your competition and how your company will forge itself alongside it
  • Acclimatisation - alterations your company, product or service may have to adapt to

Next is the process of market entry, which will always seem simpler on paper. Your main considerations will be:

  • A market strategy that, if needed, acknowledges international trade development
  • Financial resources and backing
  • People, and how they can help develop your product for export / a new market
  • Erudition in local requirements: packaging, pricing, labelling, etc
  • Again, erudition, but in the costs and payment procedures of exporting
  • Some of these factors alone may establish an unsuitability for your intended market, so research them thoroughly.

Next, is your product cut-out for export? Think about:

  • The standards and regulations of products in your overseas market
  • The fees involved with altering your product, service and company for a foreign market

UKTI

UK Trade & Investment (UKTI) is the Government organisation that helps companies in the UK succeed in the global economy. Offering services to UK based firms wanting to gain access to global markets through export and foreign expansion, UKTI offer a range of services tailored to the needs of individual businesses, helping them to maximise their international success.

UKTI Services

Expert Trade Advice: The UKTI International Trade Team has 40 local offices around the UK through which they are able to meet business owners and offer advice and support on international trade and growing a business. Find out more.

The Passport to Export Programme: The Passport to Export programme was devised to offer new and inexperienced exporters support and guidance in the following ways (find out more):

  • Free Action Planning
  • Support in Visiting Potential Markets
  • Mentoring from a Local Expert Professional
  • Customised and Subsidised Training
  • Ongoing Support

Gateway to Global Growth: A free service to experienced exporters which offers a strategic review, planning and support to help grow your company''s business overseas. Solutions could be complex requiring both UK Trade & Investment services and those offered by other public or private sector organisations. It could involve the acquisition of specialist information and skills or guidance on how to achieve a specific objective. It may even involve sharing your experience and problems with other experienced exporters. Find out more.

Business Opportunities: With a team of expert advisors located overseas within British Embassies, High Commissions and Consulates, UKTI publish overseas business opportunities open to British companies. To benefit from these Business Opportunities you must register your UK-based business on the website. Find out more

Access to UKTI Market Expertise: UKTI are able to provide help with the initial approach into a new market, offering help through research and advice through 2 principle services:

Overseas Market Introduction Services (OMIS): This service will put a business in direct touch with local UKTI staff in their overseas offices who are able to provide support and access to country and sector-specific advice. Find out more.

Export Marketing Research Scheme (ERMS): Administered on behalf of UKTI by the British Chamber of Commerce, companies may be eligible for a grant for market research projects to obtain commercial intelligence. Find out more.

Help with Visiting an Overseas Market: UKTI provide grant support for eligible Small & Medium Sized Enterprises to attend trade shows overseas and help arrange groups of UK companies to attend tradeshows and missions. This is implemented through their Tradeshow Access Programme, allowing entrepreneurs to test market, attract customers, appoint agents and distributors, and develop international business. Find out more.

Selling & Distribution

To improve the chances of overseas success, you need to consider a few key issues. Sales presence, for instance, should be a top priority. Will you sell directly? Will you trade over the internet? Perhaps trade shows are more suitable? Could you benefit from a local partner who knows the market? Here are a few fundamental choices:

  • Get yourself a distributor who can sell on a local or national level
  • Sales agents can either sell a product for you, or alternatively acquaint you with potential clients or customers
  • Joint ventures with local companies have gained in popularity, primarily because of their knowledge and established presence in the market. It is often a pricey option, however
  • Of course, you can also set up your own office, ensuring maximum control on all operations. This is obviously the most expensive of all your options

A few things to remember. Firstly, when drawing up any contracts with agents or distributors, it is imperative to unequivocally define obligations such as delivery and payment

Next, your intellectual property (IP) may be jeopardised if it is not declared in each foreign country. This can often be a laborious process, so be prepared. Remember that patents are generally recognised only in their country of origin.

Marketing

Oh, the minefield of overseas marketing. It’s no point squeezing a product or service into a new market with the shoehorn of indigenous merit. Your product or service must adapt, refine, alter, acclimatise, tailor and fashion itself to a market, not rely on some fatalistic hope of simply “fitting in.” Products are more pliable than people.

As aforementioned, the necessity to contextualise your product or service socioeconomically can’t be overstated. It will be a paradoxical balance of market sensitivity and exploitation. Does your product require a drastic change to its image? Can it be changed to flatter a national idiom?

Legal Obligations

Needless to say, a keen attention to laws, legislation and regulation is paramount. VAT rules should be considered early; some products may not qualify for the HM Revenue & Customs zero-rate policy.

Controls & Licenses

You’ll need to check if any of your products require an export license. Products such as chemicals and firearms, for instance, usually do.

Comprehension of the Law

Of course, upon entering a foreign country, a product or service is subject to, and must abide, national laws.

Developing Your International Trade Potential

This UK Trade & Investment (UKTI) programme was established to help novice entrepreneurs and exporters who are considering selling overseas. With its first-class knowledge of overseas business, it helps entrepreneurs through training, planning and continuing support.

Here are some of the features of the programme:

  • Free assessment of your preparedness for exporting and help devising an entry plan
  • Training in all the essentialities of overseas trading
  • Support and help with market research, and the possibility of financial assistance if needed
  • Expert advice and help with overcoming protocol, such as language and cultural barriers
  • Advice from specialist international trade advisors
  • Continuing support for overseas development and trading

You can join the Developing Your International Trade Potential Programme if you meet the following requirements:

  • Less than 250 employees
  • Less than 50 million Euro turnover
  • Your company makes 25% or less of turnover from exports
  • You are a new, novice or passive exporter

Are You Ready To Export?

Entering into the export market through an existing business may seem like an obvious way to increase your current revenue. In many cases, it is a viable means of expanding a business, and generating greater income. However, it is important to consider the logistics, timing and practicalities before jumping into the unknown.

Exporting can extend your market, boost your turnover and prevent you having too great a dependence on your UK-based customers. But it isn''t always an easy option. Starting to export poses a whole new set of challenges, from identifying promising markets and customers to ensuring that you can fulfil your export contracts. Developing new export markets takes time and money.

Exporting isn''t simply an add-on to your existing business. It should be part of an overall strategy to develop the business. Before you start exporting, it''s worth making sure you''ve developed a complete export plan looking at all the costs and risks involved. A well planned extension overseas can bring financial and reputational success, but a rushed job may just cause more damage than it is worth.

Planning is key, so consider the following before making any decisions:

  • Exporting presents all the normal challenges of marketing in the UK - it''s up to you to find customers and convince them to buy from you. Understanding the market and its requirements is very important. Don’t assume that because you know the domestic market, you automatically know foreign ones.
  • Exporting is usually a way of growing a successful business, rather than an easy way out for one that''s in trouble. If you''re struggling with limited finances or overworked employees, you may not have the resources to take on the extra work.
  • As an international business, you will need to cope with extra logistical problems, contractual issues and paperwork. You''ll probably want a contract drawn up using internationally recognised terms and conditions and standard commercial practices to make it clear what your responsibilities are.
  • There''s also a range of paperwork for sorting out transport, customs clearance and payments. These may take more time and effort than you expect, and must be dealt with in meticulous detail.
  • You need to comply with regulations in both the UK and overseas. For example, some goods that are allowed in the UK might not satisfy another country''s standards.
  • Exporting demands additional resources, both in terms of financing and skilled personnel. Be prepared for your expenditure on staff and expert advice and services to increase significantly before you start to see the benefits
  • With the additional costs, such as international transport, you may find you simply can''t compete with local suppliers. If the market only offers low margins, or you haven''t got the resources you need, you may decide that exporting isn''t for you. Make sure that you plan carefully and know that you could present a competitive product or service overseas.

Equally, if you''ve got a good product to offer and a well-run business, the chances are there will be opportunities for you out there in the export market. If the rewards you expect justify the investment and the risks, you should commit to your export plan and make it happen.

The Plan

Assess your skills and resources 

To start exporting successfully, you should take a systematic approach and decide what your export strategy is. You need to spend time and money planning, researching market opportunities and building relationships. You may also need to invest in modifying your product and service to suit overseas customers.

Buy in help 

Once you''ve planned your exporting activities, you also need to devote extra resources to handling your exporting business. Marketing to overseas customers tends to be more demanding than selling within the UK. Exporting also needs special skills - such as organising international transport and handling customs clearance.

Many businesses find that the best way to get started is to buy in the services they need, and build in-house skills and resources later. For example, you might use a local agent to sell, and a freight forwarder to handle deliveries.

Source your capital 

Exporting can also be financially demanding. Customers often want credit from the time they receive the goods. For a long distance shipment, this could be weeks after you produced and shipped the goods, so you get paid later than you would by a customer in the UK. At the same time, you may have to meet extra costs like transport and insurance.

The more successful you are, the greater the demands placed on your business will be. It''s worth planning ahead to be sure you have the capacity to handle the extra production, selling and after-sales support.

Organise your paperwork 

When trading internationally the right paperwork is crucial. Missing or inaccurate documents can increase risks, lead to delays and extra costs, or even prevent a deal being completed.

Whether you are importing or exporting, you need to understand what paperwork is required. Even if you use a freight forwarder or an agent, it''s still up to you to make sure the right documentation is available. See our basic guide below for pointers to get you started.

Documentation Guide

This guide explains the key documentation you need to use. It outlines what should be in your contracts and what paperwork you need for customs, transport and payment.

Key documentation for international trade

  • There should be a clear written contract between buyer and seller, including details of exactly where goods will be delivered.
  • Specific documents may be needed to get the goods through customs and to work out the right duty and tax charges. Requirements of both exporting and importing countries should be addressed.
  • Documentation is needed to cover the transport of the goods and insurance during the journey.
  • The right paperwork can be an important part of the payment mechanism. It''s important to co-operate with your counterpart on getting the paperwork right.

NB: If you''re shipping goods to a customer overseas, they should tell you what paperwork they require at their end. If you are dealing with a non-English speaking country, it can be a good idea to provide one set of commercial documents in the local language.

International trade contracts and Incoterms 

Different countries have different business cultures and even languages. It''s a good idea to make sure you have a clear written contract to minimise the risk of misunderstandings.

To avoid confusion, internationally agreed Incoterms should be used to spell out exactly what delivery terms are being agreed, such as:

  • where the goods will be delivered
  • who arranges transport
  • who is responsible for insuring the goods, and who pays for insurance
  • who handles customs procedures, and who pays any duties and taxes

As well as including delivery details, the contract should cover payment. This should include what currency payment will be made in, how much will be paid, when payment is due and what payment method will be used.

Export documentation 

You may need an export licence to export goods. For example, there are controls on exports of chemicals and military technology. Licence requirements may also depend on which country you are exporting to.

Export declarations 

If you are selling goods within the EU, most goods are in free circulation and can be easily moved from the UK to other countries without customs controls or charges.

If you are selling to customers outside the EU, you need to declare your exports to HM Revenue & Customs (HMRC). This is generally done electronically, using the New Export System (NES). The declaration includes details of the classification of the goods being exported and which country they are going to.

Alternatively, an authorised agent or freight forwarder can handle the customs declaration for you.

Export VAT 

For VAT purposes, exports are generally zero-rated, but you should keep copies of your VAT invoices and proof of export. This helps you prove that the goods left the country and that you do not have to pay any output VAT on them.

If your sales to EU countries exceed £260,000 - you must also complete the Intrastat supplementary declaration.

Exports to countries outside the EU do not count towards the Intrastat threshold and do not need to be included.

Overseas imports 

You should check what documentation is required for import into your customer''s country. Typically, you need a commercial invoice and shipping documents such as an Air Waybill. Other requirements can include a certificate of origin.

Once you have considered the logistics of entering the export market – either with an existing business or a new venture – you can start planning. Just remember to be meticulous, and plan everything to the last detail, follow our pointers, and you should enjoy a lucrative business opportunity!

Importation

If you import goods from another European Union member state, it is not necessary to make a customs entry. That said, it may be necessary to file a Intrastat declaration if the goods you are importing goods which exceed an annual value threshold.

All EU member states subscribe to the common trade policy toward imports from third countries. As a union, the EU has a relaxed import policy. Typically, imports licenses are not needed for goods entering a European Union country, except in the case of certain sensitive items, such as tobacco, weaponry, agricultural products, surveillance, and goods dictated by quantitative restrictions.

As the imports license policy dictates, no import licenses are generally necessary. However, the Union has quantitative restrictions in position to oversee certain goods being imported from certain countries. Some goods may be liable under tariff quotas. Traders with Hong Kong should be particularly wary.

Import Restrictions

No matter how liberally traded the EU wants to be, it obviously has restrictions in place that prohibit certain goods, such as:

  • Pirate or counterfeit items, which can not be imported outright. If they are, the importer could be subject to fines
  • Chemical product restrictions: mercury, PCB, PCT , CFC and HCFC containing products are banned. There are further restrictions on other substances.
  • Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO), which are restricted
  • Restrictions on the importation of live animals and animal products

The European Union

An economic and political unification of 27 countries, the EU is just shy of 500million citizens, and has a total generation of roughly 30% of the world''s gross product. The unification has created a single market through a standardisation of laws, which all signatory states must abide. These laws ensure the freedom of movement of people, goods, products, services and money. The EU also boasts a common trade policy and regional development policies.

Sixteen member states have adopted the Union''s official currency, the Euro. The goals of the EU are not dissimilar to other free economic areas:

Strengthen democracy and democratic governance of its participating members

  • Improve efficiency between member states
  • Further economic and financial unification and centralisation
  • Create and develop the community social dimension
  • Introduce a security policy for all member states

Port of jebel ali

Port Jebel Ali is 35 kilometers southwest of the city of Dubai in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). In 2008, The Dubai Port Authority (DPA) announced that all cargo operations would be moved from Port Rashid to Port Jebel Ali. Port Rashid will then become a cruise terminal and mixed-use urban waterfront area to house 200,000 people.

Please refer to the World Port Source entry for Port Rashid for information about the history and tourist attractions of the city of Dubai.

Port History

Port Jebel Ali was constructed in the late 1970s to supplement the facilities at Port Rashid in Dubai. The village of Jebel Ali was constructed for port workers, and it has a population of 300 people.

Covering over 134 square kilometers (52 square miles), Port Jebel Ali is the biggest man-made harbor in the world and the biggest Middle East port. It is home to over five thousand companies from 120 countries of the world. Its deep harbor and large facilities have made it the US Navy’s most-visited port. The harbor and facilities will accommodate Nimitz-class aircraft carriers and battleships. US service personnel frequently take liberty there and have come to call it “The Sandbox.”

Port Commerce

Port Jebel Ali offers amble area for container handling, with over 1 million square meters of container yard. It also contains ample space for medium- and long-term general cargo storage, including seven Dutch barns with a total of almost 19 thousand square meters and 12 covered sheds covering with 90.5 square meters. In addition, Port Jebel Ali offers almost 960 thousand square meters of open storage. The Port Jebel Ali berthing facilities for roll-on/roll-off vessels and car carriers offer ample space for short- and long-term vehicle storage and for livestock handling.

The Container Freight Station at Port Jebel Ali includes 17.4 thousand square meters of covered storage and over 200 thousand square meters of open storage. The Cool Stores at Port Jebel Ali accommodate chilled perishables like chocolates and semi-perishables like tobacco and pharmaceuticals in a 2695-square-meter facility that is both humidity- and temperature-controlled. The facility has a 1,400 pallet capacity.

The London Metal Exchange (LME) approves Port Jebel Ali as a delivery point for four non-ferrous metals, including copper, lead, nickel, and high-grade zinc. Port Jebel Ali terminal also maintains two tanker berths for multiple users and two for ENOC as well as private storage tanks for holding stocks of oil that are available for rent.

Port Jebel Ali is linked to Dubai’s expressway system and to the Dubai International Airport Cargo Village. The Cargo Village facilities are technologically advanced and capable of handling perishable and time-sensitive cargoes, making four-hour transit from ship to aircraft possible.

The DPA’s commercial trucking service offers container and general cargo transport between Port Jebel Ali, Port Rashid, and the rest of UAE all day every day at very competitive prices.

Cruising and Travel

When visiting Port Jebel Ali, you’ll want to see the Ibn Battuta Mall, with eight areas themed for six countries: India, China, Egypt, Persia, Andalusia, and Tunisia. The Mall contains a wide variety of shops, restaurants and cafes, and a multiplex cinema. It also boasts a permanent exhibit of Islamic invention, science, and astronomy.

Port Location:

Jebel Ali

Port Name:

Port of Jebel Ali

Port Authority:

DP World

Address:

PO Box 17000
Dubai
United Arab Emirates

Phone:

971 4 8811110

Fax:

971 4 8811331

800 Number:

 

Email:

This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it

Web Site:

www.dpa.ae

Latitude:

24° 59' 45" N

Longitude:

55° 3' 34" E

UN/LOCODE:

AEJEA

Port Type:

Seaport

Port Size:

Medium

China Customs Regulations

Entry

Tourists must fill out a baggage declaration form (in two copies) and hand it in to customs, retaining the carbon to show upon exit.

Personal belongings will be admitted duty free, including food, two bottles of liquor and two cartons of cigarettes. Wristwatches, radios, tape recorders, cameras, movie cameras, and similar items may be brought in for personal use but cannot be sold or transferred to others and must be brought out of China.

Gifts for relatives or friends in China, or articles carried on behalf of other, must also be declared.

Visitors can bring in an unlimited amount of foreign currency and Chinese renminbi traveler’s checks, and the unspent portion can be taken out.

Bringing in the following articles is prohibited:

1. Arms, ammunition, and explosives of all kinds
2. Radio transmitters-receives and principal parts
3. Renminbi (Chinese currency) in cash
4. Manuscripts, printed matter, films, photographs, gramophone records, cinematographic films, loaded recording tapes and videotapes, etc. which are detrimental to China’s politics, economy, culture, and ethnics
5. Poisonous drugs, habit-forming drugs, opium, morphine, heroin, etc
6. Animals, plants and products thereof infected with or carrying germs and insects
7. Unsanitary foodstuffs and germ-carrying foodstuffs from infected areas
8. Other articles the import of which is prohibited by state regulations

Exit

On leaving China, the tourists must again submit the baggage declaration form for customs inspection (the second copy). Travels by ship are exempted.

Items purchased in China with RMB converted from foreign currencies may be taken out or mailed out of the country after receipts are presented for customs inspection. In cities where a Customs Office does not exit, this can be arranged through the local Friendship Store.

Taking out the following articles is prohibited:

1. Arms, ammunition, and explosives of all kinds
2. Radio transmitters-receives and principal parts
3. Renminbi (Chinese currency) in cash and negotiable securities in RMB
4. Unratified foreign currency, foreign notes or drafts
5. Manuscripts, printed matter, films, photographs, gramophone records, cinematographic films, loaded recording tapes and videotapes, etc. which are detrimental to China’s politics, economy, culture, and ethnics
6. Rare and precious copies of books about Chinese revolution, history, culture and art that are not for sale
7. Valuable animals, plants, and seeds
8. Precious metals, pearls, and jewels (things declared to the customs are exempted)
9. Other articles the export of which is prohibited by state regulations

Customs Acceptance Regulations

Customs Acceptance Regulations (For outward-bound passengers)

 

  1. Passengers carrying items for personal use, such as cameras, camcorders and laptops valued in excess of RMB 5,000 each, and which will be brought back from overseas, should complete Declaration Forms in duplicate.  One copy of this form, endorsed by Customs, will be returned to the passenger for relevant Customs procedures at the time of their re-entry.
  2. Passengers carrying over RMB 20,000 in cash or foreign currencies with a conversion rate in excess of   US $5,000 shall be processed by Customs in accordance with the current regulations.
  3. Passengers carrying precious metals such as gold and silver etc. shall be processed by Customs in accordance with the current regulations.
  4. Passengers carrying antiques, endangered animals, plants and/or products made of or from them or any biological species, shall be processed by Customs in accordance with the current regulations.
  5. Passengers carrying radio transmitters and/or receivers or communication security devices shall be processed by Customs in accordance with the current regulations.
  6. Passengers carrying other articles, which are restricted or prohibited to be removed from the country according to the laws of the People’s Republic of China, shall be processed by Customs in accordance with the current regulations.
  7. Passengers who carry goods, samples or articles for advertisement shall be processed by Customs in accordance with the current regulations.

Customs Acceptance Regulations (for inward-bound passengers)

  1. Resident passengers may bring in duty-free articles for personal use worth a total of RMB 5,000 (including RMB 5000, sic passim). Customs shall levy duty on the portion of the article(s) whose value exceeds the duty-free limit.
  2. Non-resident passengers may bring in duty-free items, which will remain in China, with a total worth of RMB 2,000. Those exceeding the duty-free limit shall be released subject to payment of Customs duty.
  3. Passengers may bring duty-free into the country 1,500 ml. of alcoholic drinks (with alcohol content of 12% or above) and 400 individual cigarettes, or 100 individual cigars, or 500 grams of smoking tobacco. Those items designated for personal use, which exceed the duty-free limit, shall be released subject to payment of Customs duty.
  4. Passengers carrying over RMB 20,000 in cash or foreign currencies with a conversion rate exceeding   US $5,000 shall be processed by Customs in accordance with the current regulations.  Passengers carrying foreign currencies exceeding US $5,000, which will be taken out of the country at the end of their stay, shall complete a Customs Declaration Form in duplicate.  One copy of this form, endorsed by Customs, shall be returned to the passenger for relevant procedures at the time of their exit.
  5. Passengers carrying animals, plants and/or products made of or from them, microorganisms, biological products, human tissue, blood and blood products, shall be processed by Customs in accordance with the current regulations.
  6. Passengers carrying radio transmitters and/or receivers or communication security devices shall be processed by Customs in accordance with the current regulations.
  7. Passengers carrying articles which are restricted or prohibited from entry into the country according to the laws of the People’s Republic of China shall be processed by Customs in accordance with the current regulations.
  8. Passengers carrying goods, samples or articles for advertisement shall be processed by Customs in accordance with the current regulations.
Passengers who declare unaccompanied luggage, which is to be transported separately, shall be processed by Customs in accordance with the current regulations.

the Canada's customs regulations 

At the border, customs officers:

  • help to monitor and control the entry of people and goods into Canada by keeping out goods that could threaten our health, environment, or agriculture;
  • work to keep prohibited goods such as drugs, certain firearms, obscenity, hate propaganda and child pornography out of the country;
  • work closely with importers and exporters to help businesses operate efficiently; and
  • look out for missing children and runaway youths.

This pamphlet provides information and advice to help make your entry into Canada pleasant and problem-free.

Ownership, possession, and use requirements

For your goods to qualify for duty and tax-free importation as settler's effects, you must have owned, possessed, and used them before your arrival in Canada. If you have the sales receipts and registration documents for these items, you can use them to help prove they meet these three requirements.

It is important that you meet the three requirements of ownership, possession, and use. For example, if you owned and possessed the goods without using them, the goods are subject to duties. Please note that leased goods are subject to regular duties, as we do not consider that you own them.

Wedding gifts

If you get married within three months before coming to Canada or if you plan to marry no later than three months after arriving in this country, you can bring in your wedding gifts free of duties. However, you must have owned and possessed them before you arrived in Canada. In this instance, the "use" requirement for the goods does not apply. These same conditions apply to household goods you bring in as part of a bride's trousseau.

Is exporting your money restricted?

Some countries limit the amount of money you can take out of the country. You should check with your banker, lawyer, or financial adviser. If you can prove that the money you wish to take out of that country has been restricted, you can claim a special provision that gives you up to three years to purchase household goods in the country from which you emigrated and to ship them to Canada duty and tax-free. This provision waives the usual rule on previous ownership, possession, and use of goods.

Items you can import duty - and tax-free

Personal and household effects

Personal and household effects include goods such as:

  • antiques;
  • appliances;
  • boats and the trailers to carry them (trailers are subject to Transport Canada requirements);
  • books;
  • family heirlooms;
  • furnishings;
  • furniture;
  • hobby tools and other hobby items;
  • jewelry;
  • linen;
  • musical instruments;
  • private aircraft;
  • private collections of coins, stamps, or art;
  • silverware; and
  • vacation trailers.

However, houses, large trailers you use as residences, and any goods you use or will use commercially are not eligible as personal or household effects. These goods are subject to regular customs duties.

Items you import for commercial use

You have to pay the regular duties on any goods you import for commercial use, including:

  • farm equipment;
  • vehicles;
  • other capital equipment you use or will use in construction, contracting, or manufacturing; and
  • other goods you use or will use commercially or in a trade.

Vehicles

Personal effects can include vehicles as long as you use them for non-commercial purposes. However, you should be aware that Transport Canada has many restrictions on vehicles.

Transport Canada defines a vehicle as any vehicle that is capable of being driven or drawn on roads, by any means other than muscular power exclusively, but not including a vehicle designed to run exclusively on rails. Trailers such as recreational, boat, camping, horse, and stock trailers are considered vehicles, as are wood chippers, generators, or any other equipment mounted on rims and tires.

Transport Canada requirements

Transport Canada's requirements apply to vehicles that are less than 15 years old, and to buses manufactured on or after January 1, 1971.

Vehicles originally manufactured to meet the safety standards of countries other than the United States or Canada are usually not allowed into Canada, unless they are 15 years or older or they are buses manufactured before January 1, 1971.

Before importing your vehicle, you can contact Transport Canada at:

  • 1-800-333-0371 (toll-free in Canada and the United States);
  • (613) 998-8616 (from all other countries).

Vehicles manufactured to meet United States safety standards do not necessarily meet the Canadian ones. As the importer, you are responsible for determining whether your vehicle complies with Canadian safety standards, or whether it can be modified to meet these standards after importation. You cannot import vehicles that cannot be modified to meet Canadian standards.

The Registrar of Imported Vehicles (RIV) is an agency contracted by Transport Canada to administer a national program to ensure that imported vehicles are brought into compliance with Canada's safety standards.

If you are considering importing a vehicle originally manufactured to meet United States safety and emission standards, contact the RIV by telephone at one of the following numbers, to verify that your vehicle is eligible for importation into Canada:

  • 1-888-848-8240 (toll-free in Canada or the United States)
  • (416) 626-6812 (from all other countries)

If your vehicle does not meet Canadian safety standards but qualifies for importation, you will enter your vehicle into the RIV program when you report to a customs office. The program registration fee is CAN$182 in all provinces except Quebec, where it is CAN$197. You will then have 45 days to bring your vehicle into compliance and have it inspected.

You cannot license your vehicle in Canada until it is modified and passes federal inspection under the RIV program.

Other considerations

Your vehicle may also be subject to provincial or territorial sales tax and safety requirements, so you should check with the vehicle department of the province or territory to which you are moving.

Before you export your vehicle to Canada, make sure you first check with the customs authority of the country from which you will be exporting it. Some countries have export requirements you must meet.

For more information, see the pamphlet called Importing a Vehicle Into Canada (RC4140) .

Alcohol and tobacco

If you meet the age requirements set by the province or territory where you enter Canada, you can include certain quantities of alcoholic beverages and tobacco products in your personal exemption. These items must accompany you on your arrival.

Alcoholic beverages

If you meet the age requirements set by the province or territory where you enter Canada, you can include in your personal exemption one of the following:

  • 1.5 litres of wine;
  • 1.14 litres (40 oz.) of liquor; or
  • 24 × 355 millilitres (12 oz) cans or bottles of beer or ale (for a total of 8.5 litres).

Note
" Cooler" products are classified according to the alcoholic beverage they contain. For example, beer coolers are considered to be beer; wine coolers are considered to be wine. Beer/wine products not exceeding 0.5% alcohol by volume are not considered to be alcoholic beverages, and as such, no quantity limits apply.

Except in Nunavut and the Northwest Territories, you can bring in more than this free allowance of alcohol as long as the quantities are within the limit the province or territory sets. However, the cost may be high, as you have to pay both customs assessments and the provincial or territorial levies and taxes.

If you intend to ship alcoholic beverages to Canada (e.g., the contents of a bar or wine cellar), contact the appropriate provincial or territorial liquor board authority before you ship them, so you can pay the provincial or territorial fees and assessments in advance. To obtain release of the shipment in Canada, you have to produce a copy of the provincial or territorial receipt and pay all of the applicable federal assessments.

Tobacco products

If you meet the age requirements set by the province or territory where you enter Canada, you can include all of the following in your personal exemption:

  • 200 cigarettes;
  • 50 cigars or cigarillos;
  • 200 grams (7 ounces) of manufactured tobacco; and
  • 200 tobacco sticks.

You can import more than these quantities, but you have to pay full duties and taxes on the extra amounts.

Note
If you include cigarettes, tobacco sticks, and loose tobacco in your personal exemption allowance, only a partial exemption will apply. You will have to pay a minimum duty on these products unless they are marked "CANADA -DUTY PAID·DROIT ACQUITTÉ". Canadian-made products sold at a duty-free shop will be marked in this way. You can speed up your clearance by having your tobacco products ready for inspection when you arrive.

Currency and Monetary Instruments

All physical importations and exportations of currency and monetary instruments equal to or greater than CAN$10,000 must be reported to Canada customs. See the Crossing the border with $10,000 or more? (RC4321) pamphlet for additional information.

Restrictions

CBSA assists other government departments in controlling the importation of certain goods into Canada, such as animals, firearms, ammunition, fireworks, meat and dairy products, plants and plant products, fresh fruits and vegetables, as well as certain food and drug products. You can get more information by calling our information line or find the address of your nearest customs district office on our Web site at www.cbsa.gc.ca/contact/rco-e.html.

Animals

Since animals may harbour pests or diseases that are harmful to people, animals, crops, and forests, we help the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) and other government departments to control the entry of animals into this country.

You may import pet dogs and cats younger than three months old from the United States without submitting any documentation. You can also import without documentation assistance dogs, such as seeing-eye dogs, regardless of their age, from all countries as long as they accompany you when you arrive. However, dogs and cats must be referred to the CFIA if they appear unhealthy.

Dogs and cats from the United States that are three months old or older may be imported provided you submit a certificate signed and dated by a veterinarian for each pet. The certificate must show that the animal has been vaccinated against rabies within the last three years. In addition, the certificate has to identify the animal by breed, age, sex, coloring, and any distinguishing marks. Please note that we cannot accept an animal tag in place of a certificate.

For all other animals from the United States, and for animals of any kind from other countries, you should check in advance with the CFIA Import Service Centres (ISC) listed below:

Eastern Import Service Centre, Montréal

Hours:

7:00 to 23:00 (Eastern Standard Time)

Telephone:

1-877-493-0468 (toll-free in Canada and the United States)
(514) 493-0468 (local calls and from all other countries)

Fax:

(514) 493-4103

Central Import Service Centre, Toronto

Hours:

7:00 to 24:00 (Eastern Standard Time)

Telephone:

1-800-835-4486 (toll-free in Canada and the United States)
(416) 661-3039 (local calls and from all other countries)

Fax:

(416) 661-5767

Western Import Service Centre, Vancouver

Hours:

7:00 to 24:00 (Pacific Standard Time)

Telephone:

1-888-732-6222 (toll-free in Canada and the United States)
(604) 666-9240 (local calls and from all other countries)

Fax:

(604) 270-9247

You can also find information on the CFIA's Web site: www.inspection.gc.ca.

Endangered species

Canada has signed an international agreement, the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES), to protect wild animal and plants and their parts or derivatives, from over-exploitation in international trade. CITES operates through an import/export permits. However, goods that are controlled under CITES (except live animals) that you have owned and possessed in your usual country of residence and that form part of your household belongings may be exempted from a CITES permit.

You cannot sell or dispose of the CITES-controlled item until 90 days after the date on which this exemption is claimed.

For more information, please contact:

CITES Office
Canadian Wildlife Service
Environment Canada
Ottawa ON  K1A 0H3

Telephone: (819) 997-1840
Fax: (819) 953-6283

Web site: www.cites.ec.gc.ca

Firearms

Canada's firearms laws help make our country safer for both residents and visitors. We suggest you contact one of our customs offices or a chief firearms officer for information before you attempt to import a firearm.

The following requirements apply to the importation of firearms:

  • You must be at least 18 years of age.
  • You cannot import prohibited firearms or any prohibited weapons or devices, including silencers and replica firearms.

For more information about importing a firearm into Canada, request a copy of the pamphlet Importing a Firearm or Weapon Into Canada (RC4227) from a Canadian embassy, consulate, or mission. For more information about applying for a Canadian firearms licence or an Authorization to Transport (ATT), contact the Canadian Firearms Centre (CFC).

Canadian Firearms Centre
50 O'Connor Street
Ottawa ON  K1A 1M6

Telephone: 1-800-731-4000 (toll-free in Canada and the United States)
(506) 624-5380 (from all other countries)

Fax: (613) 957-7325

Web site: www.cfc.gc.ca

Meat, dairy products, and fresh fruits and vegetables

Canada has many requirements, restrictions, and limits that apply to importing these and other foodstuffs. You can avoid problems by not bringing such goods into Canada. For more information, call the information line or find the address of your nearest customs district office on our Web site at www.cbsa.gc.ca/contact/rco-e.html.

Plants

Plants are potential carriers of insects and disease. For this reason, customs officers help the CFIA control the entry into Canada of plants, including the earth, soil, sand, or all other related matter in which they are planted or packed.

Houseplants are defined as plants commonly known and recognized as houseplants, grown or intended to be grown indoors. These do not include bonsai plants.

Houseplants being imported from the continental United States as part of a traveller's baggage or with household effects do not require phytosanitary certificates or import permits.

Houseplants from Hawaii entering Canada as part of a traveller's baggage or with household effects are admissible if they are bare-root and free of soil and all other related growing media, and if the container bears a stamped certificate from the Department of Agriculture of the State of Hawaii.

All other plants from the United States require a phytosanitary certificate from the U.S. Department of Agriculture, and may require an import permit issued in advance by the CFIA.

Plants from countries other than the continental United States require a plant protection import permit issued by the CFIA. The permit must be obtained well in advance of the material being exported or shipped to Canada. The CFIA may require that the plant material be accompanied by a Phytosanitary Certificate issued by the phytosanitary authorities (i.e., Plant Protection/Quarantine authorities) in the country of origin.

For more information, contact any CFIA Import Service Centre listed in this pamphlet.

Before coming to Canada

Before you arrive, you should prepare two copies of a list (preferably typewritten) of all the goods you intend to bring into Canada as settler's effects, showing the value, make, model, and serial number (when applicable). Divide the list into two sections: the goods you are bringing with you, and the goods to follow.

You have to present this list to the customs officer on your arrival in Canada, even if you are not bringing in any goods at that time.

Since jewelry is difficult to describe accurately, it is best to use the wording from your insurance policy or jeweler's appraisal and to include photographs. You should describe each item of jewelry on the list of goods you submit. This information makes it easier to identify your jewelry at customs when you first enter Canada, and later on if you take it with you on a trip abroad.

At the border, the customs officer will prepare Form B4, Personal Effects Accounting Document, on your behalf, based on the list of goods you provided. The officer will assign your B4 form a file number and give you a receipt. You will need to present your receipt to claim duty- and tax-free entry of your "goods to follow" when they arrive later.

You can make the process easier by completing a B4 form in advance and presenting it to the officer when you arrive. You can order this form from the CBSA Distribution Centre listed at the end of this pamphlet.

Disposing of goods you brought into Canada duty- and tax-free

If you sell or give the goods away within the first year of importing them into Canada duty- and tax-free, you have to pay any duties that apply immediately. The same rule applies to goods you begin using for commercial activities.

Need more information?

For more information or clarification, please contact your nearest Canadian embassy or consulate, or call our Automated Customs Information Service (ACIS). If you are calling from outside Canada, you can access ACIS by calling (204) 983-3500 or (506) 636-5064. Long distance charges will apply. You can access ACIS free of charge within Canada by calling 1-800-461-9999.

Most of our publications are available on our Web site.

You can also request publications from the CBSA Distribution Centre:

Telephone: 1-800-959-2221 (toll-free in Canada
and the United States),

Fax: (613) 946-0622

Comments or suggestions?

If you have comments or suggestions about this pamphlet, we would like to hear from you. Please write or fax us at:

Client Services Division
Customs Operational Policy and Coordination and Field Operations
Canada Border Services Agency
Ottawa ON  K1A 0L5

Fax: (613) 954-3577

Customs Legislation and Regulations

This section contains electronic copies of a consolidation of regulations made under the Customs Act and Customs Tariff for the importation and disposition of goods.

These documents have no official or legal sanction. They are intended solely for convenience of reference of CBSA officials or any person involved in the importation of goods. To interpret and apply the terms and conditions of a regulation, refer to the official copy in the Canada Gazette, Part II.

Dubai customs regulations

Customs Regulations

On entering Dubai at the airport or elsewhere, visitors may be subject to a check by customs officers. Tourists should take careful note of the following customs regulations:

Visitors to Dubai can bring the following items free of duty:

  • Gifts with a value not exceeding AED 3,000
  • 400 cigarettes, 50 cigars, 500g of loose tobacco
  • 4 litres of alcohol, or 2 cartons of beer (1 carton = 24 cans, each not exceeding 355 ml)

The following items of personal luggage are also exempt from duty, provided it is of a personal and not commercial nature:

  • Personal belongings, cameras, radios, CD and DVD players, projectors, telescopes, mobile phones, computers, baby strollers, portable music equipment, sports equipment
  • Up to AED 40,000 in cash and travellers cheques provided the passenger is 18 or over

Items prohibited in Dubai include narcotic drugs, goods from Israel or with an Israeli logo/trademark, crude ivory and rhinoceros horn, gambling equipment, tires, radioactive material, forged currency, cooked and home-made food, and prints, sculptures, and lithographs.

There are several types of items that must be declared to Dubai Customs on arrival. Non-declaration of these is an offence. Such items include:

  • Cash (or equivalents) above AED 40,000 or $US 10,000
  • Pets
  • Skins of endangered animals subject to the CITES Convention
  • Books, films, DVDs, CDs, photographs
  • Gifts with a value of more than AED 3,000
  • Medicines – even if for personal use
  • Fireworks, explosives, weapons, ammunition, knives, swords, self-defence equipment
  • Plants, trees, soil
  • Narcotics

Medicines

Note: Due to increasing concerns from readers concerning medicines we reference the following information. We take no responsibility whatsoever for its accuracy or whether it is currently up to date.

Statement on medication – website of the Embassy of the UAE in the UK at October 26 2010:

Individuals may bring medicine into the country for their personal use. Up to three months’ supply of a prescription item can be brought into the country by a visitor and 12 months’ supply by a resident if they can produce a doctor’s letter or a copy of the original prescription. Narcotic items can only be brought into the UAE in exceptional cases with prior permission from the director of medicine and pharmacy control. These guidelines relate to medicines brought in by an individual through an airport or border crossing and medicines arriving by post.

Visitors must take care to ensure that medicines and medications prescribed in their home countries are not restricted before travelling to the UAE. The UAE Ministry of Health’s Drug Control Department publishes a list of controlled medicines and medications. Visitors should contact the Ministry of Health drug control department to check whether their medication is on the controlled list, and needs prior permission for importation. The Customer Service Centre of the drug control department can be contacted by emailing This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it , by telephone on +971 2 611 7240 or by fax +971 2 632 7644.

The following PDF documents are on the UAE Ministry of Health website:

There is also a list of drugs restricted in the UAE on the site of Fair Trials International and the Embassy of the United States in Abu Dhabi.

Drug Laws

Dubai has very strict drug laws. Anybody thinking about bringing drugs or restricted medicines into Dubai should read the following articles:

Dubai customs regulations

Customs Regulations

On entering Dubai at the airport or elsewhere, visitors may be subject to a check by customs officers. Tourists should take careful note of the following customs regulations:

Visitors to Dubai can bring the following items free of duty:

  • Gifts with a value not exceeding AED 3,000
  • 400 cigarettes, 50 cigars, 500g of loose tobacco
  • 4 litres of alcohol, or 2 cartons of beer (1 carton = 24 cans, each not exceeding 355 ml)

The following items of personal luggage are also exempt from duty, provided it is of a personal and not commercial nature:

  • Personal belongings, cameras, radios, CD and DVD players, projectors, telescopes, mobile phones, computers, baby strollers, portable music equipment, sports equipment
  • Up to AED 40,000 in cash and travellers cheques provided the passenger is 18 or over

Items prohibited in Dubai include narcotic drugs, goods from Israel or with an Israeli logo/trademark, crude ivory and rhinoceros horn, gambling equipment, tires, radioactive material, forged currency, cooked and home-made food, and prints, sculptures, and lithographs.

There are several types of items that must be declared to Dubai Customs on arrival. Non-declaration of these is an offence. Such items include:

  • Cash (or equivalents) above AED 40,000 or $US 10,000
  • Pets
  • Skins of endangered animals subject to the CITES Convention
  • Books, films, DVDs, CDs, photographs
  • Gifts with a value of more than AED 3,000
  • Medicines – even if for personal use
  • Fireworks, explosives, weapons, ammunition, knives, swords, self-defence equipment
  • Plants, trees, soil
  • Narcotics

Medicines

Note: Due to increasing concerns from readers concerning medicines we reference the following information. We take no responsibility whatsoever for its accuracy or whether it is currently up to date.

Statement on medication – website of the Embassy of the UAE in the UK at October 26 2010:

Individuals may bring medicine into the country for their personal use. Up to three months’ supply of a prescription item can be brought into the country by a visitor and 12 months’ supply by a resident if they can produce a doctor’s letter or a copy of the original prescription. Narcotic items can only be brought into the UAE in exceptional cases with prior permission from the director of medicine and pharmacy control. These guidelines relate to medicines brought in by an individual through an airport or border crossing and medicines arriving by post.

Visitors must take care to ensure that medicines and medications prescribed in their home countries are not restricted before travelling to the UAE. The UAE Ministry of Health’s Drug Control Department publishes a list of controlled medicines and medications. Visitors should contact the Ministry of Health drug control department to check whether their medication is on the controlled list, and needs prior permission for importation. The Customer Service Centre of the drug control department can be contacted by emailing This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it , by telephone on +971 2 611 7240 or by fax +971 2 632 7644.

The following PDF documents are on the UAE Ministry of Health website:

There is also a list of drugs restricted in the UAE on the site of Fair Trials International and the Embassy of the United States in Abu Dhabi.

Drug Laws

Dubai has very strict drug laws. Anybody thinking about bringing drugs or restricted medicines into Dubai should read the following articles:

Rules / Information

 

Getting your personal belongings confiscated at Dubai Airport isn’t a pleasant experience. To avoid such a situation, you need to know what you are allowed and what you are not allowed to bring in with you. Below, you’ll find a comprehensive list of rules regarding customs in Dubai. If you need more information or would like to contact the Dubai customs authority, visit www.dxbcustoms.gov.ae

Permitted Items
Passengers are permitted to bring the following items into Dubai International Airport without paying customs duty:

  • Gifts whose value does not exceed AED 3,000
  • The Number of cigarettes shall not exceed 400 cigarettes, 50 cigars, 500 grams of tobacco (minced or pressed for pipes), minced or pressed tobacco for smoking, tobacco or mild-tasting tobacco
  • The amount of alcoholic beverage and beer shall not exceed 4 litres for alcohol beverages; or 2 cartons of beer (each consisting of 24 cans, not exceeding 355 ml for each can or its equivalent)
  • Still and moving image video cameras with their appropriate tapes, films and accessories
  • Projectors for displaying slides and films including accessories and agreeable quantities of slides and films
  • Telescopes
  • Portable music equipments
  • Radio systems, combined broadcasting apparatus, CD and DVD players with agreeable quantities
  • Mobile telephone
  • Portable TV sets
  • Portable typing sets
  • Computers including laptops
  • Portable calculators
  • Baby cars
  • Disabled wheelchairs and cars
  • Sports equipment
  • Cash money, currencies and travellers cheques less than AED 40,000; and the passenger’s age shall not be less than 18 years old


Exemption Conditions:
Exemption shall be subject to the following conditions and controls:

  • The baggage and gifts must be of a personal nature and not in commercial quantities.
  • The passenger must not enter the country with goods on a regular basis, be a trader in what he possesses or a member of the respective conveyance crew.
  • Passengers below 18 years of age may not bring cigarettes or alcoholic beverages into the country.
  • Prohibition and restriction procedures shall be applicable to items or belongings accompanying passengers.


Duty Free Allowances: Same as Above

Items that must be declared

  • Narcotics of all kinds
  • Weapons, ammunition and military equipment
  • Radios, striking appliances, self-defence equipment and cold steel
  • Domestic and endangered animals subject to CITES Convention (hides, ivory & stuffed animals)
  • Currencies (more than USD 10,000 or AED 40,000 or the equivalent in other currencies)
  • Goods of commercial value (exceeding AED 3,000 in value)
  • Trees, plants & soil
  • Films, Books, Visual & Compact discs
  • Fire works & explosives
  • Medicines of all kinds


Medicine

  • Passengers cannot carry medicines in bulk quantity, even if it is for personal use. It may be impounded and can result in a criminal case.
  • To bring prescriptive drugs into Dubai, a prescription from the passenger’s doctor is required for the period the passenger will be staying in Dubai.
  • Special permission from the Ministry of Health may be required in order to bring more than a convincible quantity of medicine into Dubai.
  • As per customs rule, all types of medicines are subject to the approval of the Ministry of Health and Medical Services.

Germany customs tariff regulations

German Customs Tariff Information

Please note: the following information is not legally binding!

All industrial imports into Germany are subject to an "Import Turnover Tax" of 16%, which is charged on the duty-paid value of the import article plus a customs duty, which is different and determined by the imported goods. (Exemptions: certain agricultural and a few other products which are taxed 7% ad valorum). The Import Turnover Tax is designed to place the same turnover tax burden on imported goods as is imposed on goods produced domestically, which are levied with a 16% "Value-added Tax" (VAT).Both customs duty and tax are collected by the German customs authorities.

General

Both the Customs Act and the Foreign Trade Act impose obligations - the fulfilment of which is supervised - on the importer. As a rule, these obligations apply only to residents in the customs territory. The foreign exporter must observe such obligations only if he acts as importer or person liable to pay duty. This does not apply to normal foreign trade transactions. In that case, it is generally the foreign seller who settles everything in connection with the sale of the goods and their delivery to the place of importation at the customs frontier whereas the domestic buyer has to fulfil all obligations within the customs territory. The foreign exporter has no statutory obligations under customs law. However, in the interest of a smooth conduct of foreign trade transactions, he has to present the documents required for import and customs clearance and to observe the existing requirements pertaining to goods. In general, there are no specific marking requirements for packages, and import goods are not generally subject to a compulsory indication of origin. It should, however, be noted that false declarations of origin and the abuse of registered trademarks are inadmissible.

Documents Accompanying Goods

Imported goods must be accompanied by a customs declaration which has to be submitted in writing and an invoice in duplicate. As a rule this declaration is filed by a German importer.Customs legislation in the Federal Republic of Germany does not make it compulsory to present customs invoices, a procedure which imposes on the person liable to pay duty the duty to present the seller's invoice according to standard patterns and officially attested or otherwise authenticated.According to German foreign trade legislation, the commercial invoice must show the country of purchase and the country of origin of the goods.By making out a detailed invoice with the following data, the foreign supplier will make it easier for the German importer to draw up the customs declaration and declaration of customs value:

Name (company) and address of seller and buyer; place and date of issue; number, kind, sign, and consecutive number of packages; precise description of articles (usual trade description in terms of nature of goods, quality grades etc. stating in particular value-increasing of value-reducing characteristics); volume or quantity in normal commercial units; invoice price; terms of delivery and payment.

For reasons relating to foreign trade legislation, the presentation, in single copy, of a certificate of origin or a declaration of origin is required for only a few commodities which are marked on the List of Imports. The import licence may, however, make presentation of such evidence compulsory.

Customs Treatment

Import goods - unless exemption is granted - must be presented as dutiable goods to the appropriate customs office and thereafter subjected to customs treatment. The clearance for home use is the rule with goods meant for use in Germany. This clearance is usually effected in the interior of the country and not at the border. Clearance for home use may be preceded by storage in a bonded warehouse.Customs clearance must be applied for since dutiable goods cannot be subjected to customs treatment without an entry for customs clearance. As a rule only the person authorized to dispose of the goods is in a position to file the entry (German Importer).The person liable to pay duty has to declare the dutiable goods at the customs office, stating characteristics and facts relevant for customs treatment, and the nine-digit code number of the German Official Customs Tariff.

Customs Tariff

The tariff nomenclature, i.e. the description of commodities under tariff headings and tariff sub-headings, and the tariff rates are the basic elements of the customs tariff. Before it is possible to calculate the amount of customs duties according to the rates, tariff classification must show under which heading or sub-heading in the tariff a commodity is to be classified. In the tariff classification of goods, each commodity can finally be allocated to only one appropriate number in the nomenclature. Tariff classification of commodities mentioned by name in the Customs Tariff causes no difficulties. But, as a rule, a single feature is not sufficient to define the nature of an article and thus effect final tariff classification. The decisive factor is the sum of different characteristics which have a bearing on the tariff classification.This also explains that neither this Consulate General nor any other diplomatic or consular office is authorized or able to provide any binding information on German customs duties. An accurate classification and assessment can only be made by customs authorities when the merchandise in question is actually entered into the Federal Republic of Germany.Binding advance tariff classification can only be obtained from the competent German Treasury Department Field Office (Oberfinanzdirektion) based on an application in the German language together with 3 samples or - if that is not possible or feasible - 3 detailed descriptions in German. As a rule this application is filed by a German importer.US exporters seeking to approach the German market can obtain information from: Department of Commerce Field Office 26 Federal Plaza, Suite 3718 New York, NY 10278 phone: (212) 264-0683 or -0615 Dept. of Commerce Office of EU and Regional Affairs Washington, DC 20013 phone: (202) 482-2905

All the import duties and taxes are constantly changing and traders need to establish the current tax position shortly before carrying out any import transaction.

Duty-Free Items

Please note: the following information is not legally binding!

Personal Effects -- Articles intended for your personal use during your trip may be imported free of duties and taxes. If you reside outside of Germany, the exemption of your personal effects from duties and taxes is conditional upon their re-exportation. If such articles are to remain in the customs territory, they must be presented to a customs office with an application for clearance for home use, and will then be subject to duties and taxes. If you are a resident of Germany, this exemption applies only to articles in your possession when leaving German territory.

Souvenirs and Gifts -- Goods purchased abroad and carried in your personal baggage when you enter the country qualify for exemption from duties and taxes as travel souvenirs and gifts if they are not destined to be used for commercial purposes and provided they do not exceed the legal maximum limits in terms of quantity and value.

Perfume -- The legal maximum limit for duty exemption is 50 grams of perfume or scent and one quarter of a liter of eau de toilette.

Tobacco -- If you are 17 years or older, the legal maximum limit for duty exemption is 200 cigarettes or 100 cigarillos or 50 cigars or 250 grams of smoking tobacco.

Alcohol -- If you are 17 years or older, the legal maximum limit for duty exemption is 1 liter of spirits of an alcohol strength exceeding 22% vol. or 2 liters of spirits, aperitifs or similar beverages of an alcoholic strength not exceeding 22% vol. or 2 liters of sparkling wines or liqueur wines, and 2 liters of still wines, or a proportional assortment of these different products.

Coffee and Tea -- If you are 15 years or older, the legal maximum limit for duty exemption is 500 grams of coffee or 200 grams of extracts, essence or concentrates of coffee or coffee preparations. The legal maximum limit for duty exemption is 100 grams of tea or 40 grams of extracts, essence or concentrates of tea or tea preparations.

Other Products -- Besides the legal maximum quantities of coffee, alcohol, tea und perfumes you are entitled to bring into the country duty free other products up to a total value of not more than € 175 (Euro) . ( gold and gold alloys are excluded )

Duty-Free Items

Please note: the following information is not legally binding!

Personal Effects -- Articles intended for your personal use during your trip may be imported free of duties and taxes. If you reside outside of Germany, the exemption of your personal effects from duties and taxes is conditional upon their re-exportation. If such articles are to remain in the customs territory, they must be presented to a customs office with an application for clearance for home use, and will then be subject to duties and taxes. If you are a resident of Germany, this exemption applies only to articles in your possession when leaving German territory.

Souvenirs and Gifts -- Goods purchased abroad and carried in your personal baggage when you enter the country qualify for exemption from duties and taxes as travel souvenirs and gifts if they are not destined to be used for commercial purposes and provided they do not exceed the legal maximum limits in terms of quantity and value.

Perfume -- The legal maximum limit for duty exemption is 50 grams of perfume or scent and one quarter of a liter of eau de toilette.

Tobacco -- If you are 17 years or older, the legal maximum limit for duty exemption is 200 cigarettes or 100 cigarillos or 50 cigars or 250 grams of smoking tobacco.

Alcohol -- If you are 17 years or older, the legal maximum limit for duty exemption is 1 liter of spirits of an alcohol strength exceeding 22% vol. or 2 liters of spirits, aperitifs or similar beverages of an alcoholic strength not exceeding 22% vol. or 2 liters of sparkling wines or liqueur wines, and 2 liters of still wines, or a proportional assortment of these different products.

Coffee and Tea -- If you are 15 years or older, the legal maximum limit for duty exemption is 500 grams of coffee or 200 grams of extracts, essence or concentrates of coffee or coffee preparations. The legal maximum limit for duty exemption is 100 grams of tea or 40 grams of extracts, essence or concentrates of tea or tea preparations.

Other Products -- Besides the legal maximum quantities of coffee, alcohol, tea und perfumes you are entitled to bring into the country duty free other products up to a total value of not more than € 175 (Euro) . ( gold and gold alloys are excluded )

Phamaceuticals

Please note: the following information is not legally binding!

The legal maximum limit for pharmaceutical products is the quantity required to meet the traveler's personal needs during the trip.

Travelers are advised to carry a doctor's prescription or statement concerning the medication in question.

Due to strict and different regulations regarding pharmaceuticals (some vitamins are considered drugs for example) this Consulate General advises not to mail medications into Germany.

Most pharmaceuticals are obtainable in international pharmacies in Germany with respective doctor's prescription.

Moving to Germany or for that matter any country can become difficult-unless you make yourself aware of the customs regulation details in that country. After all, you do not want your belongings to be stranded in some port in the country. In some countries especially, customs regulations can be very stringent-and you may suddenly find yourself in a puddle. So, do your homework!

The customs regulations information listed on our website have been collected from several sources including information made-available-by embassies and government websites

Major City/Cities in Germany

Stuttgart
München
Berlin
Potsdam
Bremen
Hamburg

Wiesbaden
Schwerin
Hannover
Düsseldorf
Mainz
Saarbrücken

Dresden
Magdeburg
Kiel
Erfurt

 

Customs Regulations applicable while Shipping To Germany

DOCUMENTS REQUIRED

  • Copy of Passport (the page showing photo) and copy of Visa and/or Work Permit (for foreign citizens only)
  • Inventory (original) in German or English, valued, dated and signed by the Customer
  • Signed declaration, stating the imported goods are the owners personal effects
  • Signed declaration, stating the imported goods are not subject to any customs restrictions (e.g. drugs, weapons, etc.)
  • Statement of Transfer from employer (in German if possible) should state the shipper was an employee for the company abroad, how long he/she has lived in this certain country, and will remain an employee of the company in Germany
  • Foreign citizens must obtain a Work Permit (Arberterlaubnis) issued by the local employment office
  • Residence Visa (not needed for German nationals) or Residence Permit (granted only after a Work Permit has been issued)
  • Certificate of registration with the German police ("Polizeiliche Anmeldung")
  • Customer's declaration that no taxable high value goods (such as alcohol, tobacco, coffee, tea, guns, etc.) are in shipment. Such goods must be listed separately and will be taxed.
  • Certificate of Registration (Anmeldebestaetigung) from the local registration office (Einwohnermeldeamt)
  • German nationals need a declaration from German Embassy or Consulate confirming their length of stay abroad and exact destination address in Germany. Without this document, shipment will not clear Customs.
  • German Customs Form 0350 (Zollantrag) in triplicate, stating goods will not be sold for one year
  • Health Certificate may be required
  • Copy of Insurance Certificate
  • Customs clearance Power of Attorney Form authorizing Destination Agent to act on behalf of the customer in liaison with Customs
  • Foreign diplomats need a Certificate from the Embassy or Consulate
  • Power of Attorney

CUSTOMS REGULATIONS

  • CUSTOMER MUST BE PRESENT FOR CUSTOMS CLEARANCE (IF ALL DOCUMENTS ARE NOT IN ORDER)
  • Used household goods are duty-free if Customer has resided at least one year abroad, if the goods were owned by Customer over six months and will not be sold for a minimum of one year
  • Goods should be imported within one year of Customer taking up residence; if not, reasons needed for delay - maximum limit three years
  • Inheritance Items
    • Death Certificate
    • "Erbschein" or an official document which certifies the customer has inherited the items from the deceased and states the relation ship between them
  • Wedding Trousseaux
    • Marriage Certificate
    • If household goods are imported before the marriage, proof must be furnished the marriage will take place within two months

DUTIABLE/RESTRICTED ITEMS

  • New items (less than six months old) invoice required
  • Alcohol
    • Inventory must detail exact number and size of bottles, exact alcoholic strength in percent, and value of each bottle.
  • Tobacco, tea, coffee, toilet waters, perfumes, etc.
  • Foodstuffs in large quantities (do not recommend shipping with household goods)
  • Electronic items such as computers, videos, stereos, etc. (must show serial number and have purchase invoice)
    • Duplicate appliances or electrical equipment may be assessed high duties
  • Large amounts of handicrafts

PROHIBITED ITEMS

  • Guns require a Certificate of Registration, valid passport of owner, proof of ownership, and a gun license for importation
    • Duty-free if firearm has been owned for at least six months prior to importing
    • Guns must be easily accessible
    • Must apply for a German Ownership Permit
    • List as last items on inventory, indicate model, caliber and serial number
  • Explosives
  • Ammunition
  • Drugs and narcotics
  • Live plants (need special Import Permit)
  • Any protected animal or species, dried plant or items of historical significance (ivory, snakeskin, leopard fur, pre-Colombian items, etc.)
  • Pornographic material
  • Certain types of meat
  • Absinthe, methyl alcohol and pure alcohol
  • Radioactive material
  • Wine, grape juice and other various foodstuffs and consumer goods in large quantity

MOTOR VEHICLES

  • Admitted duty-free if Customer has lived abroad for over one year, has owned and used the auto for a minimum of six months, if brought in for personal use with household goods and will not be sold for one year
  • Cars must be inspected before licensing, comply with German technical and environmental regulations and require modifications
  • Documents required:
    • Proof of ownership
    • Car documents
    • German driver's license
    • Owner's passport
    • Owner's police registration in Germany (polizieliche Anmeldebestatigung)
    • Insurance record from country of origin
    • Third-party liability insurance that begins with Customs clearance
    • Declaration of Customer that no high value goods are in car
    • Origin Registration and copy of title
    • Commercial invoice, if new vehicle
    • It is highly recommended that the Customer informs the Destination Agent of all auto details prior to importing.

PETS

  • Dogs, cats and canaries permitted with Health Certificate (in German or with a translation) issued by a licensed veterinarian describing the animal and stating that the pet is free from rabies and contagious diseases
  • Health Certificate is valid ten days from the date in which it was issued (20 days for pets coming from non-European countries)
All endangered species and exotic animals are prohibited
 
World Business Information

Iran

The 18th largest country in world by terms of area, iran is situated in the middle east. With population around 65,875,223, iran has 2,440 km long coastline. The country is endowed with natural resources like petroleum, natural gas, coal, chromium, copper. With total 8,367 km railways, the nation has 331 airports. The country is positioned on 94th rank with GDP real growth rate is recorded somewhere at 5.8%. Service sector is the major GDP contributor followed by industry and agriculture sectors. The country has earned 2.52 million bbl/day(approx.) with an export of oil. It's natural gas proved reserves are calculated nearly at 26.37 trillion cu m.

 

 
World Business Information

Economics of International Trade

The history of international trade is a long and chequered one. The term has different connotations across history. For example in the era when the nation states were not there the term international trade meant trade over long distances.

It was pretty similar to modern day international trade, which is a kind of movement in goods. As per historical records there was an Assyrian merchant colony, which was located at Kanesh in Cappadocia during the 19th century BC. The Arabians were able to carry on trade in silk and spices in the Far East region with the help of the camels they had domesticated for the purpose. The Egyptians traded in Red Sea area. They imported spices from the Arabian region as well as the area known as “Land of Punt”.

In the middle ages the Abbasids used Siraf, Alexandria, Aden and Damietta in order to come into India and China for the purposes of trade. Chang'an, which was the capital of the Tang dynasty, was regarded as the eastern depot of the Silk Road. It became one of the significant metropolitan centers at that point of time. It was the center of trade, residence and travel. This role was taken over by Hangzhou and Kaifeng when the Song dynasty was in power. Guangzhou was one of the leading international seaports of China when the Tang dynasty was in power from 618 AD to 907 AD. However, Quanzhou became a more important seaport when the Song dynasty was in power from 960 AD to 1279 AD.

 
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